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VICTORIA UNIVERSITY 

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THE LIBRARY 

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VICTORIA UNIVERSITY 

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THE STORY 

OF THE YEARS 

A History of the Woman's Missionary 

Society of the Methodist Church, 

Canada, 1906-1916 



By 
MRS. E. S. STRACHAN 

Field, later Foreign, Secretary since 1881 

With Introduction, Foreword (China). Home Base 
and Distinguished Service Order Chapters 

By 
MRS. W. E. ROSS 

Dominion President *ince 1897 



VOL. Ill 









TORONTO 

WOMAN'S MISSIONARY SOCIETY METHODIST CHURCH. CANADA 

WESLEY BUILDINGS 







EMMANUEL 




©-■a-^ 



Corrriirht, Canada, 1917, 
br 

WOMAN'S MISSIONARY SOCIETY 

METHODIST CHURCH 

CANADA 



PREFACE 

IT is difficult to compress within suitable 
bounds and at the same time give anything 
like an adequate " Story of the Years," 1906- 
1916, during which the Woman's Missionary 
Society of the Methodist Church, Canada, 
has continued its God-given work. 

Following the account of the first twenty- 
five years of the Society's operations, so faith- 
fully and so ably presented by the late Mrs. 
H. L. Piatt in the first and second volumes, 
we find an embarrassment of material — 
informing and interesting — concerning the 
wonderful expansion and consolidation so 
obvious in all departments. 

In harmony with the plan previously 
adopted we consider the missions in the 
same general order, only striving to mark 
their development and the opening of new 
stations. 

Elizabeth S. Strachan. 

Hamilton, Ont., 1917. 



CONTENTS 



CHAPTER PAGH 

Preface . . . . . .3 

Illustrations 7 

Introduction 9 

Indian Field 

I. Crosby Girls' Home . . . .17 
II. Elizabeth Long Memorial Home . . 25 

III. Coqualeetza Institute . . . .31 

IV. Cross Lake ...... 34 

Nelson House 34 

French and Foreign Work 

Montreal, Que. 

V. French and Foreign, Montreal . . 41 

French Methodist Institute . . .41 

French Protestant Home . . .43 

Syrian School 43 



V 



Strangers and Foreigners 

VI. Asiatic Foreigners 51 

Orientals in British Columbia . . 51 
Oriental Home and School, Victoria, 

B.C 51 

Japanese and Chinese, Vancouver . 60 




( 






VII. European Foreigners . . . .67 

Ruthenians or Austrians in Alberta . 67 

Wahstao . . . . .69 

Kolokreeka . . . . .73 

Chipman . . . . . . 79 

Edmonton . . . .81 

5 



Contents 



CHAPTER 



VIII. Many Nationalities 88 



All Peoples ' Mission, Winnipeg . . S8 

Frank, Alta. ; Fernie and Michel, B.C. 89 

Prince Rupert, B.C 91 

Vancouver, B.C 91 

Fort William, Ont 92 

Sault Ste. Marie, Ont 92 

Italian — Toronto, Hamilton, Montreal £0f"\ 



V 



Japan 



IX. Japan 
X. Tokyo . 

XI. Shizuoka . 
XII. Kofu 
XIII. Kanazawa 
XIV. Toyama . 

XV. Nagano . 
XVI. Ueda 



99 
103 
117 
124 
137 
150 
153 
157 



China 

XVII. A Foreword 175 

XVIII. Chengtu 181 J 

Girls' School 181 

Women's Schools . . . .190 
School for Evangelists' Wives . .193 

Medical Work 211 

XIX. Kiating 234 

XX. Jenshow 244 

XXI. Junghsien 254 

XXII. Tzeliutsing 267 

XXin. Luchow 281 

XXIV. Penghsien 293 

XXV. Chungking 297 

The Heart of the Problem 

XXVI. The Home Base 301 

XXVII. "Distinguished Service Order" . . 320 

Appendix 

A. Branch Schedules, 1905-06, 1915-16 . 332-333 

B. Officers of the Board of Managers, 1906-1916. 334 

C. Missionaries Appointed since 1906 . . . 337 



ILLUSTRATIONS 

PAGB 

Map, Dominion of Canada 16 

Crosby Girls' Home, Port Simpson, B.C. . . 18 
Girls in Crosby Girls' Home . . . .18 
Elizabeth Long Memorial Home, Kitamaat, B.C. 26 
Girls in Girls' Home, Kitamaat . . . .26 

Coqualeetza Institute 32 

Hospitals, Hazelton and Port Simpson, B.C. . 32 
Miss Jackson's Home, Nelson House, Man. . 34 
Miss Jackson and her Dog Team . . . .34 
French Protestant Home, Montreal, Que. . . 42 

Syrian School, Montreal, Que 42 

Oriental Home and School, Victoria, B.C. . . 52 
Children in Oriental Home and School .. . 52 
Missionaries' Home, Vancouver, B.C. . . .60 
Miss J. L. Howie and her Japanese Assistant, 

Hibi San 60 

W.M.S. Home and School, Wahstao, Alta. . . 72 
W.M.S. Home and School, Kolokreeka, Alta. . 72 
Ruthenian Home, Edmonton, Alta. . ' . .84 
Hospitals, Pakan and Lamont, Alta. . . .84 
All Peoples' Mission, Winnipeg, Man. — 

Stella Ave. and Sutherland Ave. Institutes . 88 
Miss Cunningham and Group, Sault Ste. Marie . 88 

Italian Missions, Toronto 94 

Map, Japan 100 

Girls' Boarding School, Tokyo, Japan . . 103 

Academic Department, Tokyo, Japan . . .103 
Senior Class, Household Science, Tokyo . . 105 



Illustrations 

PAGB 

Junior Class, Household Science, Tokyo . . 105 
W.M.S. Home and Boarding School, Shizuoka, 

Japan 118 

Primary Building, Shizuoka, Japan . . . 118 
Home and Boarding School, Kofu, Japan . . 124 
Evangelistic Centre, Kofu, Japan . . . 124 

Yamanashi Province 128 

Strachan Hall, Kanazawa, Japan . . . 144 
Herbie Bellamy Home, Kanazawa, Japan . . 144 
Kawakami, Kindergarten, Kanazawa, Japan . 148 
Baba Kindergarten, Kanazawa, Japan . . 148 
Kindergarten and Home, Nagano, Japan . . 154 
T.916 Graduation Class, Kindergarten, Nagano, 

Japan 154 

Missionaries' Home, Ueda, Japan . . . 158 
Kindergarten Building, Ueda, Japan . . . 158 
Girls' Boarding School, Chengtu, China . . 182 
Boarding Pupils, Girls' School, Chengtu, China . 182 
Map, Szechwan Province, China .... 184 
Missionaries' Home, Chengtu, China . . . 186 
Gymnasium, Girls' School, Chengtu, China . . 186 
W.M.S. Hospital, Chengtu, China . . .216 
Dr. Anna Henry, Supt. of W.M.S. Hospital. . 216 
Missionaries' Home, Kiating, China . . . 234 
Boarding Pupils, Kiating School .... 234 
Home and School, Jenshow, China . . . 244 
Missionaries ' Home, Junghsien, China . . . 244 
Boarding School, Tzeliutsing, China . . . 276 
Home and School, Luchow, China . . . 276 



INTRODUCTION 



SO much is crowded into the days and 
months of the swiftly passing years that 
it is well, at the close of each decade in the 
history of the Society, to gather up the scat- 
tered threads of thought and action and weave 
them into an imperishable record. 

During the last more than two years of the 
period, sorrows hitherto unknown, losses irre- 
parable, and cruel anxieties have been the 
portion of many of the women of our sister- 
hood, but they have been sustained by the 
surety that their sacrificial offerings have not 
been in vain, for we are all one in the hope 
that after this heart-breaking war is over, in 
which the ends of the world have touched 
each other, we shall live in a new world where 
brotherhood and love, justice and righteous- 
ness shall prevail. In order to this all men 
must become acquainted with the Christ; 
must know, cherish and pursue His ideals. 

It is a great satisfaction that our beloved 
Foreign Secretary, Mrs. E. S. Strachan, who 
has been " an eyewitness and minister of the 
word from the beginning," has been able to 
set in order for us the events of the past ten 
years interwoven with the charm of her own 
personality. 

9 



Introduction 

The introduction to the tirst volume of the 
series referred to the work of the Women's 
Missionary Societies of the world as a reve- 
lation of the new life which came to Chris- 
tian womanhood in the latter part of the 
nineteenth century. Since then there has 
been merely an unfolding of this higher life, 
an evolution toward increased spiritual and 
mental power in the individual and greater 
efficiency in methods of work ; just an earnest 
effort to reach the highest in the service of 
Jesus Christ our Lord; therefore those who 
come to this " Story " expecting something 
new, something spectacular, may be dis- 
appointed, for throughout it has only been 
possible to indicate the outward signs of that 
silent growth of the soul that " cometh not by 
observation, v but is seen through a vista of 
years. 

All will rejoice in the manifest increase in 
our fellowship, both abroad and at home. 
Where in our Educational and Evangelistic 
work in the Orient we had hundreds of young 
people and children we now have thousands. 
A larger number of trained Bible-women and 
a greatly increased staff of educated Chris- 
tian Japanese and Chinese teachers, with 
added adequate and beautiful buildings, well 
equipped, have multiplied efficiency and 
enriched the quality of service rendered. 
But above all. those who are one in heart 
with our missionaries will exult in the goodly 

10 



Introduction 

number of baptisms recorded from time to 
time, which is merely indicative of the 
iL larger hope" that has come to multitudes 
not yet ready to identify themselves openly 
with the Christian Church. 

At home, as we shall learn, new avenues 
have been entered along the line of Social 
Service, and to all advances in the different 
fields an added membership in the Society 
and an increased annual income have given 
joyous response. 

The student will note that the Board has 
with steadfastness adhered to its first well- 
considered plan of establishing in the East 
strong centres from which to extend Chris- 
tian influence and effort. The city of Kofu, 
Japan, is an example, where from an ade- 
quate base five missionaries and seven Bible- 
women reach forty-six out-stations with their 
thousands of children. This plan of central 
concentration in strategic cities has proved 
an immense success, but the time has now 
come in Japan and China when forces could 
be widely distributed were they available. 
Favorable public sentiment, open and invit- 
ing towns and villages ; eager, waiting hearts 
here and there, all combine to urge this 
course, and the only hindrance is the lack of 
missionaries. 

Will every member who reads these pages, 
whose dominant desire is the coming of the 
Kingdom, pray that this reproach may be 

11 



Introduction 

lifted; pray for added missionaries and 
native helpers abroad and for leaders at 
home — sorely needed; pray that the women 
of Methodism in this crucial hour may not 
fail to respond to evident forward leading? 

Caleb said, " Let us go up at once and pos- 
sess the land," but the people answered, " We 
are not able to go up." Then the Lord spake, 
" But as truly as I live, all the earth shall be 
filled with the glory of the Lord." 

This definite prophecy, coupled with the 
promise given by the Son of our Lord, " Lo. 
I am with you," should enable us with trium- 
phant courage to, with Him, "go up," and 
thus seek to share in His ultimate glory. 

Elizabeth W. Koss, 
President of the Board of Managers. 

Hamilton, 

January, 1917. 



12 



INDIAN FIELD 



Crosby Girls' Home 

Elizabeth Long Memorial 
Home 

Coqualeetza Institute 

Cross Lake, Manitoba 

Nelson House, Manitoba 



INDIAN FIELD 



THE place of Christian effort among our Indian 
population is evidently not lessening in import- 
ance or obligation, nor in its privilege. 

Their need, their circumscribed possibilities, their 
lack of ambition, their inherited diseases and super- 
stitions, their ignorance, their degradation — largely 
through contact with evil white men bringing the 
drink traffic and its diabolical retinue — all sound a 
loud, insistent appeal to everyone having a sense of 
justice (to say nothing of generosity), but especially 
to the Church of God, that the utmost possible be 
done to atone for such wrongs, to replace darkness 
and disease with light and health, to proclaim liberty 
to the captives of ignorance, fear and evil habits by 
the knowledge of God's Word and world, and the 
saving, cleansing power of Jesus Christ our Lord. 

Canada's Indian population in 1914 was 103,531, 
of whom 5,086 were members of the Methodist 
Church. It is said that 8,209 are still worshipping 
the Great Manitou, and sacrificing to the Great 
White Dog. 

There are 18,000 of school age and our Church is 
educating about 3,000. Six hundred are in its board- 
ing and industrial schools. 

Many are of the opinion that the co-education of 
Indian boys and girls up to the age of eighteen (as 
at Coqualeetza, where the W.M.S. shares responsibil- 
ity), and ultimate enfranchisement are the only 
means that will solve the difficult Indian problem. 
So far, in the Homes entirely under the care of the 
W.M.S., Kitamaat is the only one where small boys 
are admitted, but everywhere social intercourse is 
being encouraged more and more. 

Hospitals. 

In the line of medical work not directly under its 
own control, the W.M.S. has continued to supply the 
salaries of eleven nurses — four at Port Simpson 
Hospital, four at Hazelton, and three at Bella Bella. 



CHAPTER I. • 

CROSBY GIRLS' HOME, PORT SIMPSON, B.C. 

THE early years of the Crosby Girls' 
Home were naturally full of intense 
interest, as a new path was being trodden and 
expansion was crowning the effort made 
while stimulating to further steps. The in- 
tervening years do not stand out through any 
startling events, but there has been the steady 
" continuance in well doing," that valuable, 
quality in life or in an institution. 

Rain ! Rain in 1906 ! Rain and yet more 
rain all through the years, yet the Home still 
presents an attractive appearance, thanks to 
constant supervision and frequent painting, 
also to improvements in the two acres sur- 
rounding it. Tourists approaching the har- 
bor instinctively ask, " What is that building 
in such a beautiful position, with so many 
magnificent views ?" 

Constant vigilance has to be exercised Tuber- 
against that great foe of Indians, tubercu- culosis - 
losis, and many times the hearts of the 
teachers have been saddened when promising 
pupils, earnest-hearted Christian girls, who, 
it was hoped, might live to be leaders and 
helpers in the uplift of their people, have 

2 17 



Indian Field 



Out-door 
Play-room. 



Govern- 
ment Aid. 



succumbed to this dread disease. (Cases of 
this kind are now excluded.) It therefore 
brought great joy when in 1909-10 an out- 
door playroom was built, having a roof and 
board floor, but with open sides, where in 
rainy weather exercise might be taken. 

One of the teachers writes : " It is impos- 
sible to estimate the value of our new play- 
room in the improvement of the general 
health of the girls. Through its use a great 
nervous strain has also been taken from the 
teachers. Four basket-ball teams have been 
organized, and the girls enter into this form 
of recreation with great zest." 

In 1910-11 the foundation was made more 
secure at an expenditure of about $600, the 
work being done by Indians and approved by 
an architect. A well costing $350 was also 
furnished. We can imagine its value when 
pipes in winter become frozen, or water from 
the dam on the hill-side is exhausted in sum- 
mer. A fire-escape, granted by the Govern- 
ment, was installed, and a Hyloplate black- 
board for the schoolroom. 

In all educational institutions among the 
Indians the authorities acknowledge their 
obligation as guardians by furnishing an 
annual grant, which for this Home since 
1911 has been $100 per capita for forty-five 
pupils. The number has varied between 
twenty-eight and forty-six, and five workers 
now are necessary. 



18 




CROSBY GIRLS' HOME, 
Port Simpson. B.C. 




FUTURE CANADIAN HOME-MAKERS 
Girls in Crosby Girls' Home 



Crosby Girls' Home 

Children come and go, but character-build- 
ing and the industries that contribute to it 
are continuous. We report, as ten years ago, 
gratifying progress both in studies and in 
household arts, prizes at local exhibitions 
having been obtained several years in both 
departments. Some specimens sent east, of 
composition, penmanship, maps, music score, 
accounts, crocheting, drawn- work, etc., would 
secure prizes anywhere. Equal excellence is 
shown in the making of bread, biscuits and 
cake, also in plain sewing. 

In 1913 the Advisory Committee thought 
it well to comply with the Government sug- 
gestion to grant a general holiday at the close 
of the cannery season. This has become an 
annual event. 

The comment made in 1915 is: "This 
month's vacation was undoubtedly beneficial 
physically, but of the moral effect we do not 
feel so confident. However, it is more and 
more felt that the parents' right and control 
must be recognized, and that through the girls 
the people, too, may be uplifted, for it is the 
life to which they must return." 

The ever-recurring reward : " Many of our Happy 
girls who have left us during past years are Homes * 
doing unusually well. Four were married at 
Christmas and are making happy homes. Six 
others are maids in good families, giving sat- 
isfaction." " Capable, well-trained, industri- 

19 



Indian Field 



Distin- 
guished 
Visitors. 



ous, faithful." What more could be asked of 
any girls ? 

Welcome calls from passing tourists have 
been received at various times, who by their 
kind words and evident appreciation have 
encouraged the missionaries and enlivened 
the ordinary routine. Among them have been 
Earl Grey (at the time Governor-General), 
his daughter, Lady Sybil Grey, our present 
Governor-General, the Duke of Connaught, 
with the Duchess of Connaught and the Prin- 
cess Patricia. Even more welcome, " a joy 
and an inspiration," the visits from the close 
friends of the school, including Rev. Dr. 
S. D. Chown, Dr. T. Albert Moore, Eev. 
T. Eerrier, our President, Mrs. W. E. Ross, 
Mrs. Thos. Crosby, with her sister, Mrs. 
Brown, and their daughters. The name 
Crosby is " as ointment poured forth " in 
all British Columbia, but more especially so 
at Simpson. 

Our Roll of Honor includes the names of 
Misses Paul, Baker, Ida Clarke, Scholefield, 
Deacon, Hudson, Gray, Black, Powell; and 
in this connection, though not residing in the 
Home, we would not omit the name of Miss 
Laing who, after returning from five years in 
Japan, resumed her ministry to the sick, 
spending four years at Morley, and since 
1910 being the efficient lady superintendent 
of the hospital at Port Simpson. 

20 



Crosby* Girls' Home 

To Dr. Large and his staff, as well as their Medical 
predecessors, grateful appreciation is felt Help * 
for their invaluable aid to the Home in times 
of sickness. 

In regard to the social life Miss Gray 
writes : 

" We had a very happy Christmas season. 
Each girl tried her best to make someone else 
happy, and it was a really joyous time. 

" All but two girls spent Sew Year's Day 
with their friends in the village. There were 
sports and games of various kinds, the raising 
of a new flag-pole being one of the chief 
events. In the evening we had a fancy dress 
party. One of the girls played and we all 
marched around the girls' dining-room for 
some time. The girls were very pictur- 
esque in their impersonations of Old Mother 
Hubbard, Little Bo-Peep, Little Miss Muf- 
f ett, and many other friends of children. We 
then had a short programme, games, and 
refreshments. Miss Humphrey very gener- 
ously sent us a gift of Christmas crackers, 
one for each girl, and these provoked much 
merriment. 

" Last autumn Mr. Marchant, of Victoria, 
Inspector of Customs, visited us and was so 
interested in our school that he offered to give 
prizes. He gave Mr. Sharp, the Hudson's 
Bay factor here, ten dollars for that purpose. 
This was supplemented by Mr. Sharp, and 

21 



Indian Field 

books were chosen with the hope that they 
would stimulate a greater desire for reading. 
On the evening of January 12th, a book was 
presented to each girl by Mr. Sharp, those 
who were the most worthy receiving the best 
books. These books are a splendid selection 
from the best girls' stories and are being much 
enjoyed by all. 

a On February 6th, ten of the ex-pupils 
were invited to an afternoon tea by Miss 
Hudson. Nine came, one being out of the 
village. They related many incidents of their 
school days and when leaving expressed their 
thanks for the happy afternoon." 

"March 17th our Mission Band held an 
apron sale and five-o'clock tea in the girls' 
dining-room, which had been made attractive 
with the pretty colors of the aprons and the 
dainty tea-tables. The older girls in the 
Band did the serving. 

" The social event of the season has been 
a dinner party given by Mr. and Mrs. Charles 
Abbott ; a bountiful repast was served. After 
dinner, speeches were made by Drs. Spen- 
cer and Large and Bev. Mr. Bichardson, of 
Amyox. Mrs. Spencer poured tea and Dr. 
Large attended to the substantial part of the 
dinner. Mr. and Mrs. Abbott have been 
Christians for many years and true friends 
to the missionaries ever since Dr. Crosby's 
first work at Port Simpson. Mr. Abbott went 

22 



Crosby Girls' Home 

on many missionary trips on the Glad Tidings 
in the early days." 

The patriotic side : 

" It pleases us that several of the girls who Patriotism, 
have graduated from our Home in the last 
two years come to see us frequently ; some of 
them have joined a Women's Patriotic Soci- 
ety that has been formed for the purpose of 
knitting for our soldiers. Over two hundred 
pairs of socks were contributed in 1916. We 
meet alternate Tuesdays at the Mission House 
or here. To-morrow the meeting is here in 
the girls' dining-room. It was a very happy 
suggestion of Miss Deacon's and is working 
well; women come whom we have not been 
able to draw into any of the meetings previ- 
ously. We meet at three, talk, knit, drink 
tea, have our closing exercises and disperse 
about 4.45." 

The religious effort. Miss Powell writes : 

" Work such as is being carried on in the 
Crosby Girls' Home, Port Simpson, has to be 
done largely in faith, with the hope that in 
the future a harvest will be reaped. The 
worker needs all the love and patience and 
tact of a mother, and that toward children 
who not only are not her own, but who are 
of a different race. All womanly virtues, 
graces and accomplishments can find scope 
here. The best, the very best, is not too good, 
and one, conscious of limitations, so often 

23 



Indian Field 

sighs to be more efficient, and turns for 
encouragement to the assurance that 'our 
sufficiency is from God.' 
Revival. "Late in the winter a revival came to 

Simpson. It lasted about two months, and 
during the first three weeks the meetings 
were held night and day. We have been 
awakened at 4 a.m. by the people out parad- 
ing the streets, accompanied by the band, and 
that after being at the meeting until mid- 
night. Many professed conversion, and many 
who had grown cold have been brought back 
again. 

"There was a wonderful influence in the 
meetings, especially while they sang — short 
choruses over and over again. Indians sing 
with much pathos and feeling. Often the 
whole congregation would be in tears. 

" Some of us will never forget one Sunday 

afternoon when, in the attitude of prayer, 

they sang again and again this refrain : 

' ' They crucified Him ; they crucified Him 
And nailed Him to a tree. 
And there He died, a King, crucified 
To save a poor sinner like me ! 

" Never before, as then, had we felt the 
wonder of the sacrifice of Christ. 

" Several of our bigger girls stood up one 
night to testify for Christ, and some, we 
believe, are trying to be true to their testi- 
mony. This, and the fact that our numbers 
are increasing, gives us cause for thankful- 
ness and encouragement." 
24 



CHAPTER II. 

GIRLS ' HOME, KITAMAAT, B.C. 
' ' Elizabeth Long Memorial Home. ■ ' 

THE last glimpse of Kitamaat in the 
previous volume revealed a sad con- 
dition — Home in ashes, teachers and children 
scattered, the beloved Superintendent, Miss 
Long, obliged through ill health to return to 
her friends in Ontario, her life's active work 
completed; the founders of the Home, Rev. 
Geo. H. and Mrs. Raley, removed — no 
wonder all felt bereft. But morning always 
follows night. 

The new building erected by the W.M.S. in New 
1908 and named "The Elizabeth Long Home. 
Memorial Home/' began even before comple- 
tion to receive the waiting children, a new 
feature being that provision was now made 
for eight or ten little boys. Twenty-seven 
children were admitted during the year. The 
full capacity, thirty-four, is usually occupied. 

The Government had built a new village 
schoolhouse quite close to the Home, which 
was a great boon, especially in wet weather. 

For ten years Miss Alice H. Jackson had 
given her strength to the uplift of these 
people, and in 1910 she was succeeded in 
the superintendence of the Home by Miss 
Donogh. 

25 



Indian Field 



Water 
Power. 



Additional 
Dormitory. 



As at Port Simpson, the visit of Mrs. Eoss 
and her friend Miss Nixon in 1911 gave great 
inspiration and pleasure. 

Improvements in the surroundings rejoiced 
all — stumps cleared away, the hill-side 
graded, cribbings built, making it possible to 
have a level lawn in front of the Home, and 
an open play-house, 24 x 30 feet. 

" The swings were a great attraction, but 
one child having been hurt, the Kitamaat 
Council forbade the little ones to swing, but 
did not enforce its law. The boys and girls 
had a meeting of their own next day, and all 
signed a petition respectfully asking the 
Council to change its mind, and then imme- 
diately proceeded to swing as often as they 
chose." 

" The sanitary conditions of the Home are 
good — there is a good, modern water system, 
with water taps on each of the four floors, 
supplied from a dam on the hillside, of three 
hundred feet elevation, and carried to the 
house by sunken water pipes. All sewage is 
carried to tide water by a large drain pipe. 

"A most important addition of a dormi- 
tory with capacity for twelve beds has been 
built in the attic, which, with the large dor- 
mitory for girls and a small one for boys, 
gives air space for thirty-four beds, five hun- 
dred cubic feet for each child being the 
requirement of the Indian Department. On 

26 




"ELIZABETH LONG MEMORIAL HOME" 
Kitamaat. B.C. 




VICTORIOUS COMPETITORS 

A group of Children in the Girls' Home. Kitamaat. and eight members of the 

Auxiliary. This-Banner was won by the KitamaatMission Band 

atthe 1916 B.C. Branch Meeting 



Elizabeth Long Memorial Home 

his last visit the Inspector said we have the 
best sleeping accommodation of any school he 
had seen in his recent visits. 

" Operations are now going forward for a Class A. 
cement foundation and basement floor, to be 
completed before winter, which places the 
building in Class « A.' " 

Miss Ida M. Clarke, who had spent six suc- 
cessful years at Port Simpson and three in 
Edmonton, was in 1912 appointed in charge 
at Kitamaat, a post she still occupies with 
advantage to all. 

Soon after arriving she organized a Mis- 
sion Band, which proved an education, and 
the meetings were much enjoyed . 

At the beginning " the members all ex- " Do some- 
pressed a wish to give themselves to Jesus J^JJJJJbSjL 
and to ' do something for somebody else.' else." 
Since then two of the older ones said that 
they made up their minds to be Christians 
when they joined the Mission Band." In 
two years, chiefly by sale of their work, they 
contributed $90.90 and $101.60; 1916 
brought $146.00, and to them was awarded 
the banner for the year. A flourishing Aux- 
iliary also exists. 

By the kindness of Mrs. Keddick, wife of 
the missionary, music lessons on the organ 
had for a number of years been given several 
of the girls, who at length were able in turns 
to play at the church services. 

27 



IndiarTField 

English It seems " it is an endless struggle to get 

Required. t h e children to talk English among them- 
selves/' but by instituting a reward system 
great improvement has been manifest, and 
consequent progress in the schoolroom. 

With no doctor within one hundred and 
fifty miles and mails but once a month the 
appointment and arrival of a trained nurse 
brought great relief to the over-strained teach- 
ers, as well as an untold benefit to the village. 

Miss S. E. Alton, who since 1895 has min- 
istered so faithfully to the sick at Port Simp- 
son, Bella Bella and, since 1914, at Kitamaat, 
thus writes : 

" There are problems to be solved by a 
nurse in Kitamaat, how best to really help 
these people. In going around daily, in and 
out of the village homes, giving treatment 
or medicine as required or dressing wounds 
when necessary, the problem comes how to 
help these women to understand the ordinary 
care of their children, to clean up their homes 
and to grasp something of the principles 
of sanitation and ventilation. 

" There are few in the village who consider 
it necessary to ventilate their homes. 

" The best work can be done among the ex- 
pupils of the Home. It means much to the 
Kitamaat people to have such a home as the 
Elizabeth Long Memorial right in the vil- 
lage. The general health is very good, with 

28 



Elizabeth Long Memorial Home 

the exception of tubercular cases; these are 
hard to help in their homes." 

Miss Scouten says : 

" Miss Alton is busy every day nursing and 
looking after the sick of the village, even hav- 
ing some night calls, which are not very 
pleasant these cold nights. Once a week she 
holds Mothers' Meetings, which are well 
attended. With all her work she is never 
too busy to help us in the Home. She is just 
the right person in the right place. 

" Miss Alton has started the Indian women 
knitting and holding Mothers' Meetings. She 
gives them talks on the care of children, and 
germs, and things like that. I am sure it will 
be helpful. Tuberculosis is the only disease 
they need dread here. We give them plenty 
of nourishing food, and it is amusing when, 
after a hearty meal, the little boys rub their 
stomachs and say, i I am plenty.' " 

To growing girls accustomed from infancy Camping, 
to an outdoor life, a few weeks of camping in 
summer are delightful in prospect, in realiza- 
tion and in retrospect. For some years this 
has been enjoyed, with more or less of incon- 
venience. To add to the zest of all, 1916 
brings visible signs of permanence and added 
comforts. 

Following are extracts from personal let- 
ters: 

29 



Indian Field 

" Rest M "We are looking forward to the usual 

camping time, four or five weeks in July and 
August, and we are arranging to have Mr. 
Moore put us up a small shack, which we 
speak of as our 'rest cottage.' We can go 
there sometimes for a few days' rest when we 
are tired and want to be quiet. As it is quite 
near Mr. and Mrs. Moore's, one will not feel 
nervous being alone. It will be very useful 
for keeping our tent, stove and other camping 
outfit in through the year. 

"During camping season the teachers will 
use the shack, the girls will have our tent and 
we have the use of a government tent for our 
little boys. 

" The lumber for the shack has come and is 
on the wharf now. One of the men in the 
valley is bringing his launch to take it across 
the water, and will have his horses haul it 
up to the camp ground. This is his dona- 
tion ; a splendid one, is it not ? It is encour- 
aging to have people willing to help us out. 

" The little son recently born to Mr. and 
Mrs. Moore (formerly Miss Lizzie Donogh, 
of the Home staff) will be an added interest 
to us while camping." 



30 



CHAPTER III. 

COQUALEETZA INSTITUTE, 
CHILLIWACK, B.C. 

DIFFERING from the two preceding Manage- 
stations, for whose management and SJJJJJilSf 
support the Woman's Missionary Society is 
wholly responsible, the Coqualeetza Institute, 
while under the control of the General 
Society or Mission Board of the Church, has 
by agreement an equal claim on both Societies 
for support. Fortunately neither is called 
upon for any large amount, as the annual 
Government grant, together with the produce 
of the farm and other industries, in general 
meets the current outlay. 

There is little to be added to the suc- 
cinct history and description already given. 
Through succeeding years continued faithful 
instruction, godly example and fervent pray- 
ers have built into the lives of hundreds of 
Indian boys and girls truths and principles, 
knowledge and inspiration, as well as practi- 
cal skill in many handicrafts, which must 
result in purer, happier lives and more useful 
citizenship. 

Mr. R. H. Cairns, who was the valued Business 
principal for seven years, tells of an ex-pupil, Abilit y- 

31 



Pledge. 



Indian Field 

one of the Kitamaat boys, visiting Coqua- 
leetza, having six hundred dollars in his 
pocket, which he and his brother had saved 
from their earnings in lumber camps. Their 
intention was to open a small store at one of 
the fishing stations. 
Three-fold The problem for the Indian here is not the 
earning of money, but the spending of it, and 
as elsewhere the drink traffic is the great foe. 
To fortify against this evil it is pleasing to 
read the record of Rev. Geo. H. Raley, who 
has been in charge since 1914, that " with the 
exception of three, the total enrolment (110) 
have taken the three-fold pledge against in- 
toxicants, cigarettes and profanity." 

A new open-air dormitory has been erected, 
accommodating twenty additional pupils, and 
still between sixty and seventy are waiting 
admission, showing growing appreciation. 

Good progress has been made in the class- 
rooms, markedly in the use of English, so 
necessary as a means of communication 
among children of different tribes and lan- 
guages. Sixty attend school in an outdoor 
class-room. 

" A good proportion of the graduates of the 
Institute are doing well. One is studying for 
the Methodist ministry; one went with the 
first contingent and one is with the second, 
while several others have enlisted. 

" Every child knows that Canada is at war, 

32 




COQUALEETZA INSTITUTE 
Sardis. B.C. 




HAZELTON HOSPITAL 






k ». s ^mf - n *W l 




PORT SIMPSON HOSPITAL 



Coqualeetza Institute 

and every night the movements of the armies 
of the Empire are demonstrated with the aid 
of the blackboard, maps and diagrams. The 
patriotic spirit is maintained at a white heat." 

Social Service at Chilliwack. 

Since 1908 a neighborhood visitor has been 
engaged, who has found ample opportunities 
for the exercise of all her gifts. The work 
can scarcely be tabulated, but year in and 
year out Miss Minnie E. Hunter has minis- 
tered to these people. She writes : 

"We have seven different Reservations, Seven 
covering a distance from east to west of about 
fifty miles and from north to south of about 
ten miles. There are a number of Roman 
Catholic families scattered among the Meth- 
odist Indians. We have on the church roll a 
membership of 110. Being so scattered it is 
almost impossible to do any organized work, 
but we have the poor to help, the orphans to 
care for, the weak ones to strengthen, the sin- 
ning ones to point the way to the world's 
Saviour, the sick to nurse, the dying to pray 
with, and the sorrowing to comfort." 



Reserva- 
tions. 



33 



I 



CHAPTER IV. 

CROSS LAKE AND NELSON HOUSE, 
MANITOBA. 

N 1912 Miss Alice H. Jackson, formerly 
of Kitamaat, after taking a course of 
home nursing, spent a year at Cross Lake, 
ministering to the Indians, relieving their 
sufferings, teaching a sewing class, and con- 
ducting a small Sunday school. 

Towards the end of 1913, after a journey 
of four days by dog-team, she arrived at Nel- 
son House, Man., which is still the centre of 
her labors. Perhaps this is the most isolated 
of all our fields, yet how cheerfully she 
describes her surroundings : 

Beginnings. " On my return from my holiday in the 
fall of 1914, the first work undertaken was 
converting the log shack set apart for my use 
into a livable home. With the missionary's 
assistance I was able to move into it five 
weeks later. The rough part of the work 
only was done, the finishing has taken the 
whole year, for I could only have men work- 
ing when I had time to oversee them; the 
Chinese are not the only men who need 
watching when building. 

" Finally it is almost complete. It is cosy 
and comfortable and an example to the 

34 



> ]This building was converted into a home for Miss Jackson, Nelson House. Man. 
She has taken six little Indian girls to live with her. 




A LONE WOMAN IN THE NORTHLAND 

Miss Jackson?with her motor power, off for an eight mile trip, 
50° below zero, to visit the sick 



Cross Lake, Manitoba 

people, showing them how they can make 
their homes more comfortable and attractive. 
u As spring advanced I began to think of 
a garden, for the only way to have vegetables 
here is to grow them. The outcome is a nicely 
fenced garden one hundred feet square, where 
I have sufficient potatoes for the year, and 
other vegetables which I have enjoyed 
throughout the summer. The days are so 
long during the summer months vegetation is 
very rapid, which adds to the flavor, so I have 
never enjoyed more delicious vegetables. 

" As soon as I was settled in my own home 
I had an Indian girl live with me ; she speaks 
good English, so acted as my interpreter. I 
found her very helpful as well as companion- 
able, and my work was much more effective 
by having her on hand to talk for me, but 
after she had been with me six months her 
mother planned a marriage for her. Although 
Susie did not want to leave me and was not 
anxious to be married, such strong influences 
were brought to bear that she finally yielded. 
Subsequently she and her husband camped 
near-by, so she was still available to act as my 
interpreter. 

" After four months of not too happy mar- 
ried life her husband died, so she is going 
away with her mother for the winter." 

Among other things sent from Toronto was 
a gramophone, which proved a great source 
of pleasure to Miss Jackson and many others. 

35 



Modes of 
Travel. 



Picnicking 
50 Below 
Zero. 



Indian Field 

In her daily round of visits to the sick, 
especially the more distant ones, the dogteam, 
subsequently supplied, was a great help and 
a saving of time and strength, while 1916 
furnished another most valuable aid to loco- 
motion in the form of a small motor boat, 
quite a curiosity to the Indians. Some thrill- 
ing experiences in travelling make it very 
clear that no possible aid is too good for such 
noble service. 

" It required a little courage to start off at 
5 a.m. with the mercury down to 50 degrees, 
but once on the way I did not mind. The 
trails were very heavy, so we could not travel 
fast. Instead of four days for the round trip 
it took us six. At the camp I found all were 
suffering from colds, etc. They had no medi- 
cines of any kind. I remained until noon the 
next day and was busy all the time. I left 
medicines with them and heard later that all 
recovered. 

" We had a nice little service in one camp 
where several understood English. While 
crossing lakes and going through forests I 
saw tracks of moose, caribou and other deni- 
zens of the wilds, but none came in sight. I 
did hope I might catch a glimpse of one of 
the big moose I hear them talk about. I liter- 
ally lived in my cariole while on the trail, 
just getting out to eat breakfast and supper. 
Picnicking in the forest with the temperature 
fifty below zero was a great experience. What 

36 






Cross Lake, Manitoba 

impressed me most was the feeling of oneness 
with the ' Unseen Presence/ especially at 
prayers morning and night. As we lifted np 
our voices in song and prayer, the loving 
Father was very real, and prayer was truly 
talking to God. That hymn, \ Anywhere with 
Jesus I can safely go/ etc., has a new mean- 
ing to me since." 

Again : " With the exception of a siege of la Trium- 
grippe, my health has been good. Though MUdstry. 
often very tired, through being busy every 
minute of every day, I have been happy and 
content. There have been lonely hours, but, 
for these and all I am deprived of, there have 
been abundant compensations. As we look 
back on the year's work, we have no great 
deeds to report, no great victories won, but 
just the doing of little things day by day. 
Suffering relieved, a sick one made more 
comfortable, a mother's fears removed, sad 
and lonely hearts comforted and strength- 
ened, sympathy given, hungry ones fed and 
little children made happy. And through 
all there has been an endeavor to so live 
among these people as to give them Christian 
ideals and a higher standard of home life, 
and to reflect the Christ, who has been meet- 
ing every day's need with His abundant 
fulness and blessing." 



37 



FRENCH AND FOREIGN WORK 

MONTREAL, QUE. 



French Methodist Institute 
French Protestant' Home 
Syrian School 



FRENCH WORK 



WHEN thinking of work among our 
French-Canadian compatriots there 
comes a warmer throb of fellowship as we 
recall the thrilling and pathetic history of 
their brave ancestors struggling with fierce 
and powerful Indian tribes. 

The heroism and zeal of their early spiri- 
tual leaders, both priests and nuns, in shep- 
herding their people and binding them to 
faith in God and Christ, evoke our highest 
admiration. 

The bright, cheery disposition of the 
French, their domestic happiness, courteous 
manners and neighborly generosity attract 
us. These elements, together with their busy 
life of industry, leave many in contentment 
with very little* education, so essential to the 
highest development of any community or 
nation. It is this, and still more, the open 
Bible, available to all, that our Church, and 
our Society, is striving to make possible and 
universal. 

To secure an intelligent, moral, united 
people, ever loyal to Great Britain, to whom 
we are bound by so many ties, this is our aim 
in all our home fields through the spread of 
scientific and practical knowledge of the 
truth in nature and revelation. 

As early as 1S06 missionary colporteurs, 
sent by the American Methodist Church, 
were at work in what was then known as 
Lower Canada. In 1S15 the Wesleyan Church 
in England sent Jean de Putron, who for 
nine years itinerated among the people, dis- 
tributing Bibles and Testaments, sowing the 
seeds of eternal truth. The Church in Canada 
did not begin real mission work in Quebec 
till 1S56, but when the Montreal Conference 
was formed in IS 74 several small missions 
were found scattered throughout the Province. 



CHAPTER V. 

FRENCH AND FOREIGN, MONTREAL, QUE. 



French Methodist Institute, Greene 
Avenue, Westmount, Montreal. 

THE record year after year of success 
achieved in all departments gives evi- 
dence of intelligent direction, earnest, faith- 
ful teaching and spiritual influence on the 
part of the principal and staff of the French 
Methodist Institute. It also shows abilitv, 
diligence and responsiveness in the pupils. 

Professor Villard, M.A., D.D., M.D., has Honors 
not only proved to his home co-workers his p° m ce 
eminent fitness to preside over this important 
Institute, but twice during the past few years 
he has received special honors from the Gov- 
ernment of France, his native country. 

One cannot but take note of two who have 
continuously devoted their energies to the 
successful carrying on of this institution, not 
merely as a school but as a home, contribut- 
ing largely to the health and comfort of all, 
as well as creating much of the social and 
spiritual atmosphere so influential in young 
life. 

41 



French and Foreign 

Valued ne whose impress still abides was Mrs. 

Workers. ^' ^* R° ss > wno * n 1906 completed ten years 
as superintendent of the home life, in which 
position she was succeeded by Madame Vil- 
lard, who still holds it. Another whose ex- 
cellent work must ever be remembered was 
Miss Masten, who in 1910 retired after 
twenty years as teacher and lady principal. 

Educationally, as well as numerically, there 
has been marked success, a number of stu- 
dents matriculating each year, some passing 
on to take the Arts course in McGill Univer- 
sity, others going to the Normal Department 
of Macdonald College. 

As the Woman's Missionary Society shares 
equally with the Board of Missions in the 
ordinary maintenance of the Institute, we 
rejoice equally in all its successes, but espe- 
cially do we gratefully read, year after year, 
of conversions and additions to the Church. 

A still more joyous thrill comes from the 
fact that two or three of the pupils have 
become candidates for the ministry. 

Patriotism and loyalty are shown in the 
statement that forty-two names are on our 
" Roll of Honor," two with a cross having 
paid with the sacrifice of their life their devo- 
tion to their country and to the cause of jus- 
tice. The girls are bearing their share by 
their industry and self-denying contribution^ 

42 




FRENCH PROTESTANT HOME 

Montreal 




SYRIAN SCHOOL 
Montreal 



French Protestant Home 

French Protestant Home, Belmont 
Place, Montreal. 

This Home, which was opened in 1906, has 
continued through the interval to shelter from 
twenty to thirty children. The little ones 
have a kindergarten; the older girls attend 
the Protestant public school, while a few pass 
on to the Institute. According to capacity all 
are taught little household arts and, of course, 
Scripture truth. Occasionally one is adopted. 
Some are removed by friends, but their places 
are soon filled. 

Syrian School (East End), 
Montreal, Que. 

In her valuable leaflet, " The Origin of 
Work Among the Syrians in Montreal," Mrs. 
T. G. Williams writes as follows : 

" Descending a few steps into the basement 
of the first French Methodist Church, corner 
Craig and St. Elizabeth Streets, Montreal, in 
1904, would be found our missionary teacher, 
Miss Bouchard, busy with her little flock, 
mainly French children, with here and there 
an English child. 

" This school was under the auspices of the 
Woman's Missionary Society of the Meth- 
odist Church, Canada, and this church for 
French-speaking people had been erected dur- 

43 



French jand Foreign 

ing the incumbency of the late Kev. Louis M. 
Beaudry, one of the optimists regarding 
French evangelization. 

" One year later a Syrian boy was brought 
to the school by a Syrian gentleman who was 
deeply interested in his countrymen. The 
boy, who had been denied admission to the 
public school, was anxious to learn English, 
and was delighted that someone was willing 
to accept him as a pupil. He proved to be 
a bright, intelligent lad, and now, developed 
into manhood, he is making his way in the 
world as partner in a wholesale firm. 
Syrian " This was really the beginning of the 

Pupils. Syrian Mission School. Soon twenty-five 

pupils were in attendance, but gradually the 
French pupils absented themselves and were 
admitted into the public schools. Since 
vacating the church, which was sold by the 
General Society, the school has been held in 
three different places. 

" In 1912, when in great perplexity as to 
where a building could be found to carry for- 
ward this work, the trustees of the St. Nich- 
olas Greek Orthodox faith kindly let their 
church for this purpose. 

" In November of that same year, the 
Woman's Missionary Society purchased a 
good building, corner Dorchester and San- 
guinet Streets, convenient to the Syrian 
colony, and during the following summer this 

44 



Syrian School 

building was fitted up for school work accord- 
ing to city requirements." 

There are now two teachers in this ever- g lss h , 
growing school, but since 1902 Miss Lillian E. 
Bouchard has devoted herself to the French 
and Syrian children of this section, and 
besides teaching them has won her way into 
many of the homes, to their great benefit. 

Lately a small first aid outfit has been sup- 
plied, which she finds most useful. So valu- 
able has her work proved it has received recog- 
nition from the city health authorities. 

Anyone in need of a tonic should visit this 
centre of life, either at Christmas time or at 
the summer closing, when the building is 
crowded to capacity by interested parents, as 
proud of their children as are Canadian 
fathers and mothers. 

A Sunday school and evening service also 
find here a home, and the Boy Scouts suitable 
headquarters. 

The following indicate modes of effort : 

" Some children are naturally clean, others Health via 
naturally dirty, but are so simply because S^ a [ >and 
they know no better. I therefore devised a 
satisfactory plan through the winter, when the 
water was always warm. Certain pupils came 
on certain days about a quarter to eight, and 
I devoted the time until nine o'clock in bath- 
ing them well with plenty of soap and water. 

45 



French and Foreign 

The doctor was delighted with the improve- 
ment in the children. Ladies of Douglas 
Church sent vaseline, glycerine and boracic 
acid for my first-aid work (1915). I have 
attended to nine hundred cases of cuts, 
bruises, burns, abscesses, extractions, etc. 

" I thought it important that the children 
should enjoy their play-time, so donations 
were freely given, with which we purchased 
swings, see-saws, skipping-ropes and games, 
also a few goldfish and some plants. Now, 
some prefer staying in the schoolroom to 
going home. 

" I have formed a Kewpie Club, the object 
of which is to get the Kewpie smile and keep 
it. We have a bank we call ' God's Bank.' 
We give what we can, and with the funds 
help the sick and poor. We get the Kewpie 
pictures and cut them out, and some have 
Kewpie dolls which they love dearly. We 
have Bible stories and pass a pleasant half- 
hour as often as I can spare the time each 
week after work is done. 
Rescued. " There was one case came to my notice 

which caused me a great deal of anxious 
thought, a girl of mine who was lured away 
by a Jew. He promised great things, mar- 
riage included, took her out west, and 
there deserted her. I located her, and wrote 
to her, and continued to do so until I per- 
suaded her to return home. She is with her 

46 



Who are 
These? 



- Syrian School 

parents now and is so thankful to be back 
again. 

" Young readers in Mission Circles and 
Bands may ask, ' Who are these people and 
from whence do they come V 

" They are said to be descendants of the 
Hebrew, Greek, Phoenician and Bedouin 
tribes, obliged to leave their own country on 
account of the oppression of the Turk. Their 
homes were in Damascus and Beirut — 
Damascus being associated in our minds with 
Paul's vision of Christ. 

" Only about two thousand Syrians are liv- 
ing in Montreal and among them are some of 
the Roman Catholic faith, but those who 
attend the school of our Woman's Missionary 
Society are of the Greek Orthodox Church 
find have their own priests and substantially 
built places of worship. 

" I have visited the homes after school, Teaching 
keeping in touch with the parents, and have by a Do11, 
tried to teach them how to care for and dress 
the new babies. Their ways are so different 
to ours it was difficult to make them under- 
stand until the young ladies of Douglas 
Church bought me a baby doll and dressed 
it in the approved fashion. I have carried 
it in my club bag, undressed and dressed it 
countless times, and have found the results 
well worth the effort." 

47 



French and Foreign 

A Bible-woman and a Deaconess also are 
doing what is possible by visiting, holding 
women's meetings, and helping in various 
ways to uplift the people spiritually and 
materially, centering their work at the All 
Peoples' Mission building on St. Urbain 
Street. 



48 



STRANGERS 
AND FOREIGNERS 



Asiatic Foreigners 

Orientals in British Columbia — 
Home and School, Victoria, B.C. 
Japanese and Chinese, Vancouver, B.C 



European Foreigners 

Ruthenians or Austrians in Alberta- 
Wahstao 
Kolokreeka 
Chipman 
Edmonton 



Many Nationalities 

All Peoples' Mission, Winnipeg, Man. 

Frank, Alta.; Fernie, Michel, B.C. 

Prince Rupert, B.C. 

Vancouver, B.C. 

Fort William, Ont. 

Sault Ste. Marie, Ont. 

Italian — Toronto, Hamilton, Montreal 



STRANGERS AND FOREIGNERS 



" Thou shalt neither vex a stranger nor 

oppress him. " 

** Thou shalt not pervert the judgment of 

the stranger.' ' 

*' The Lord your God loveth the stranger." 

" Love ye therefore the stranger." 

1 ' I was a stranger and ye took me in. ' ' 



Go ye and teach the next one whom you 

meet — 
Man, woman, child, at home or on the street — 
That ' God so loved them ' each in thought 

so sweet, 
He could not have them lost through sin's 

defeat, 
But sent you with His message to repeat 
That pardon through His Son might be 

complete, 
So shall our land be saved from sore defeat 
And gather with the nations at His feet. ' ' 



CHAPTEE VI. 

ASIATIC FOREIGNERS. 



Orientals in British Columbia. 

LESS than three years ago we find this 
.j startling statement : 

" In addition to an Asiatic population 
already numbering forty thousand, more than 
seven thousand Orientals entered Canada 
during 1912. From the poll tax ($500) i 
on Chinese immigrants the Dominion and/ 
Provincial treasuries received last year mL 
les s than $3,339,443 , not one^dfjof^one_per/ 
■^cent. of which waslipent by all agencies com- 
^DtTTeoTin giving Orientals in Canada an ade- 
quate opportunity to know and receive Jesus 
Christ as Saviour and Lord." 

In the early part of the period we are con- 
sidering, a view given by one of our observant 
staff expresses much : 

" While the labor unions are exercised 
about the influx of so many foreigners, we 
are more alarmed because of the very inade- 
quate efforts toward their evangelization 

Oriental Home and School, 
Victoria, B.C. 

^ Earnest work has been done by our W.M.S. 
since 1887 in rescuing and sheltering, for a 

51 



N> 



>/* 



Strangers and Foreigners 



Evil 
Traffic 
Dimin- 
ished. 









New 
Building, 

1909. 



longer or shorter period, both Chinese and 
Japanese girls, and women with their chil- 
dren. Difficulties and hindrances have been 
many, ranging from ignorant and degraded 
self-will in individuals to dealing with cruel 
and mercenary highbinders in law courts, but 
surely there is a sufficient reward in liberated 
slaves, respectable, happy homes established, 
and the knowledge that many, having received 
in their hearts as well as in their minds the 
instruction given, are trying to lead Christian 
lives. 

Unceasing watchfulness on one side and 
heavy court costs on the other have resulted 
in a great diminution of this execrable traffic 
in human lives, so that more attention has 
since been given to the education of the little 
girls of Chinatown, in addition to those in the 
Home, for whom regular teaching for years 
has been provided. 

In 1908 a little kindergarten was opened 
which met with great favor and was a notice- 
able help in the acquiring of English by the 
wee tots when they passed on into the school. 
The language teaching in some of the homes 
secured also a favorable introduction. 

It was a great joy to our faithful mission- 
aries, Mrs. Snyder, Miss Margaret Smith, 
and Miss Annie T. Martin, but especially to 
Mrs. Snyder, who for ten years (with one 
furlough) had poured out her heart and 
strength as home-mother, when in 1909 pos- 

52 




ORIENTAL HOME AND SCHOOL 
Victoria. B.C. 




CITIZENS OF TO-MORROW 

Children in Oriental Home and School. Victoria. B.C. 
The baby in high chair to the left named Ross, after our President 



Asiatic Foreigners 

session was taken of the beautiful new build- 
ing the erection of which had been of daily 
interest for some months. Mrs. Snyder 
writes : " The new building is a constant de- 
light, not only to us but to the friends here 
and those who visit us. It is very much 
larger and finer in appearance than I evei* 
hoped for, and so convenient after the crowd- 
ing in the old Home." Another says: " Our 
new schoolroom, so bright, airy and well- 
equipped, has added not a little to the success 
as well as to the pleasure of our work." 

An encouraging evidence of fidelity and 
ability in both teacher and pupils appears in 
the record of 1916, showing that this whole 
effort is well worth while : 

" As I look back to the Home and School as Clever 
I found it nine years ago, I think of four Studcnts - 
pupils. Two who attended our day school 
then are just closing their first year at high 
school. They .are from Christian homes, the 
girl the eldest of eight and the boy the eldest 
of seven. They are workers in our Mission 
Band and Sunday school. 

" The other two were not only in our School 
but lived in our Home. One was with us nine 
years. She is just closing her last year in 
high school and is looking forward to study- 
ing medicine. The other one, after being in 
our Home five years, was taken back to China 
in 1909 by his father to study Chinese. He 

53 



Strangers and Foreigners 






Chinese 
and 

Japanese 
Auxiliaries. 



returned this summer to continue his English 
studies. He has a room at the Mission and 
seems very happy to attend Sunday school 
and the church services. 

" I am sure he will never forget the good 
training he received from Mrs. Snyder." 

/Again, " Our entrance girls, jVgnes Chan, 
Chinese, and Annie ^sTakabayashi, Japanese, 
have worked well. The results of the pro- 
vincial examination show that out of the 350 
city candidates our girls are found in the first 
rank." 

Much satisfaction was felt when some 
women, whose interest the teachers had tried 
to arouse, suggested the holding of a women's 
meeting. This resulted in the organization 
of a Chinese Auxiliary with seventeen mem- 
bers and the promise of a few more, u and all 
are starting with a good fund of enthusiasm 
and are anxious to help on the missionary 
cause and to learn all about our field, at home 
and abroad." An interesting coincidence is 
narrated by Miss Smith in this connection : 

" At the first meeting of the Mission Band 
this year, May 21st, Auxiliaries were formed 
out of the older members. Subsequently we 
happened to look through the secretary's book, 
and on the first page found the following: 
f The Chinese Girls' Home Mission Band was 
organized by Miss Bowes (a former much- 



esteemed superintendent of the Home), May 



Asiatic Foreigners 

21st, 1897, with eighteen members.' Was it 
not strange that twelve years after, to a day, 
this Band should be divided, so that now we 
have a Japanese Auxiliary with thirteen 
members, a Chinese Auxiliary with seventeen, 
and a Band of thirty members ? In 1915 over 
$329 were contributed by these organiza- 
tions." 

The meeting of General Conference in General 
Victoria made 1910 memorable, and as over e °£ e * T ~ 
three hundred callers registered their names 
at the " Oriental Home and School/' express- 
ing great admiration and pleasure, may we 
not hope that the efforts put forth for these 
people from " the land of Sinim " may have 
a more distinct and growing place in their 
sympathy and prayers. There is need, as 
the following incident will show : 

" At 4.40, on the morning of July 8th, I Ah Ho. 
was awakened by the door bell, and on going 
down found a Chinese slave girl, aged eight- 
een, who, as I opened the door, smiled on me, 
picked up her little handkerchief bundle and 
quickly entered. We were at once drawn to 
her, as she has such a nice face. Two little 
girls of six years from the home in which she 
lived attended our kindergarten for some 
time, and she learned of the Home from 
them. They told her it was a pretty white 
house on the other side of the same street 
two blocks up, so she found it easily. Ten 
days after she came she gave birth to a baby 

55 



Strangers and Foreigners 

boy, her master being the father. From all 
we can learn she has always been a good girl 
and is very happy in our home. Her name is 
Ah Ho. Her master brought her into this 
country six years ago, and swore she was his 
daughter to escape the payment of $500 (as 
merchants' daughters enter free of the head 
tax) . This month he has been brought before 
the immigration authorities and had to pay 
not only the $500 head tax, but a fine of $500 
and, as the girl is nice looking, he probably 
would have received at least $500 for her, 
when he gave her in marriage. We cannot 
but wonder what would have become of her 
if we had been at camp, where we have been 
on that date for years past. The girls say 
that, of course, it was God kept us home, for 
we had taken Him into our plans of camping, 
and had planned, all being well, on going the 
following day." 

For some years one of our staff was 
engaged in superintending the night school 
for Chinese young men in connection with 
the church. Though there were transients, 
quite a number attended regularly, and among 
them three who were baptized by Rev. Dr. 
Carman during the B. C. Conference of 
1912. Four others joined the Y.M.C.A., 
which was also a source of joy. 

One would need to read the Annual Report 
and letters to form any idea of the treacher- 



Case. 



Asiatic Foreigners 

ous, cruel and persistent ways employed to 
entrap and hold Chinese girls for gain, even 
in our own beloved country. Though it was 
hoped the traffic was almost eliminated, yet 
most pitiful cases strain the nerves and wring 
the hearts of our missionaries from time to 
time. 

Here is one as late as 1915, "that of a Thrilling 
second wife who was kidnapped away to 
China by her husband (so-called). He had 
asked her many times to go, but she feared 
she would be a slave to the first wife, and as 
he had threatened at times to sell her into 
shivery and even to take her life, she was ter- 
rified to go with him. Early in April, how- 
ever, by representing her as insane, he secured 
the help of two detectives, and the poor 
woman was dragged by main force from her 
home, placed in an auto and taken to the 
wharf, where a Japanese steamer, outward 
bound, stood. There a shameful scene took 
place, as she was dragged on the boat, fighting 
every inch of the way for her freedom. Those 
who witnessed it were shocked, but did not 
interfere because of the presence of the two 
officers. Once on the boat she was locked in 
a room and forcibly prevented from scream- 
ing. 

" This did not come to our ears for two 
days, but when we did hear it we at once set 
to work to give her some protection. Her 
father raised funds, and the Chief of Police 

57 



Strangers and Foreigners 



Pastors 

and 

Helpers. 



Kinder- 
gartens. 



sent a cablegram to the Shanghai police to 
protect her and have her sent back if she 
wished to return. The ministers of the city 
also took the matter up and interviewed the 
Attorney-General, who sent another cable- 
gram. Accordingly, at Shanghai and again 
at Hong-Kong, police officials boarded ,the 
boat and interviewed her. She is now in the 
care of friends in Hong-Kong until it can be 
decided what is best to be done for her. Her 
husband fled, frightened, to some inland town 
in China, where he will probably be glad to 
remain until the affair is settled. A war- 
rant for his arrest stands ready if he ever 
attempts to return to Canada." 



Tribute is again and again paid to the 
valuable work done by the Chinese and Jap- 
anese pastors and their wives, also to the 
Bible-women, who have secured attendance at 
meetings, interpreted, visited and helped in 
all ways possible. 

Much is expected from efforts continued 

through the years in the Sunday school. 

Attendance has increased since the opening 

of another kindergarten, held in the mission 

'premises, Chinatown. 

Even hardened faces smile at the children 
as the teachers take them back and forth 
from school, and remarks of appreciation are 
heard. In a house where a picture was being 
shown of Jesus blessing little children, one 



58 




Asiatic Foreigners 

of the mothers suddenly said to the inter- 
preter, " Oh, I understand now why the 
teacher loves the little ones so and tries to 
help them ; it must be because Jesus, the One 
she worships, loved them so much." She had 
caught the idea. 

" Our visiting work among the women Fruitful 
grows in interest. During the year we found Seed - 
a young wife who had recently come from 
China and had during a short residence in a 
Mission School there heard something of the 
Gospel. She longed to know more of its pre- 
cious truths, but her husband would not allow 
her to go to church nor Sunday school, where 
she could receive religious instruction. She 
begged us to come often and teach her. ' I 
love to study the Gospel,' she said, as she 
picked up our Bible and handled it eagerly." 

The Immigration or Customs authorities^ Marriages. 
for several years had sent to the Home new 
arrivals whose coming had been awaited by 
Japanese young men, or where parties had 
arrived by the same steamer, in order that a 
legal Christian marriage should at once take 
place. In one year the number was 185. 

In 1915 we learn that " owing to a change 
in the immigration laws the Japanese ' pic- 
ture marriages ' are recognized in this 
country, and," Mrs. Dever, whose gracious 
influence in the Home for five years was a 
benediction, says, " we no longer have the 

59 



/ 



Strangers and Foreigners 



Treasure 
Found. 



Miss 
Preston. 



opportunity of meeting these sisters as they 
come to our shore to offer them help and pre- 
sent them with a copy of the Scriptures, as 
we have been doing in the past. 

" God speaks in a wonderful manner to 
some of these people. One young Japanese 
woman, who came from Japan to become the 
wife of a young Christian Japanese, began 
to study the Gospel. She came out from her 
room one day, her face so radiant that her 
companion could not but notice her joy, and 
asked the cause. ' Oh/ she replied, ' I have 
been studying about the Gospel. I never 
knew it was so beautiful. I am so happy. I 
want to study about it all the time.' " 

Japanese and Chinese in Vancouver. 

For years some effort had been made to 
influence Japanese women for Christ through 
occasional visits from the missionaries in Vic- 
toria and the employment of a native Bible- 
woman, who also carried on a small day 
school. 

It was evident that much more could be 
accomplished if there were a resident mis- 
sionary, especially if she were acquainted 
with the language and the customs of the 
people. The Society was very fortunate in 
that Miss Preston, who had rendered so many 
years of valuable service in Japan, was now 
available (1908) for this important post. 

GO 




CO 

w £ 

J3 > 

HI o 

u 

"O c 

« > 





Hh^diMBGaMpMB * frf-^^^^B 








^fe, . 


$pnr f v g^ 



Asiatic Foreigners 

The following year, 1909, shows that with 

the help of one Bible-woman work had been 

commenced in eleven places, some meetings 

necessarily being held only once a month, 

" recalling the early years of our toil in 

Japan, when it meant years of patient effort 

to produce much apparent result, but then in 

time came the readier, the more abundant 

harvest." 

t A home for our missionary and as a centre JJome ^ 
„ , j* j a Purchased 

of our work was soon round necessary. A IQog 

suitable building on a convenient site (652 

Keefer Street) was purchased, and possession 

taken the first of November, 1909. Very 

soon there were not only meetings and social 

gatherings for Japanese or Chinese, but a 

weekly union prayer-meeting was held by 

members of the W.M.S. Auxiliaries of the 

city. 

A kindergarten class was opened in the 
Japanese Mission in 1911, which brought the 
missionary into closer touch with some of the 
women. An Auxiliary was also organized, 
with thirty-one members ; this in addition to 
the Mission Band, which took great interest 
in the outlined studies. 

Also for the Chinese a kindergarten was Centres 
started in September, 1911, and a second oi'Light. 
among the Japanese the following year. 

Regular work has been carried on for both 
nationalities at various points in the city and 

61 



Strangers and Foreigners 



Buddhists 
Stimu- 
lated. 



Buddhist 
Institu- 
tional 
Temple. 



in outside places — Steveston, Sapperton, New 
Westminster — and fruitful evangelistic trips 
made to ISTanaimo and the mining- camps at 
Cumberland on Vancouver Island. 

Miss Preston writes: 

" We visit in the homes to the limit of 
our capacity, but when we consider that there 
are about 800 Japanese women and 250 
Chinese women in Vancouver and suburbs 
alone, we realize the largeness of the task 
before us. We rejoice to know that in the 
community we have come to stand for high 
ideals and an uplift towards the good. It 
is said that the Buddhist women in their 
monthly meetings aim to have helpful talks, 
because they wish their women to improve 
as much as do the women who attend the 
Christian women's meetings." 

The need of Christian effort and instruc- 
tion is evident when we read : 

" The Japanese have a fine new Buddhist 
temple in Vancouver of an institutional char- 
acter, built to suit the needs. The Buddhists 
have various activities, as dormitory work, a 
night school and a boys' club. The old reli- 
gions are still entrenched in the hearts of 
many, but the distinction between Chris- 
tianity and Buddhism is sometimes not 
clearly made. It is ' God and Christ and 
Bnddha all the same.' 



02 



Asiatic Foreigners 

li In the homes one frequently sees the god 
shelf. In one home I visit there is a god shelf 
in the sitting-room and another in the adjoin- 
ing bedroom. The good woman in a certain 
home feared that the frequent illness in their 
family might have been caused by the god 
shelf facing towards the north, which is 
regarded as an unlucky omen of sickness. 
Her husband assured her there was nothing 
in that, but she could not free herself of the 
impression, and in a later visit I found the 
shelf had changed its position. Here then 
was our opportunity to point to better things, 
to seek for possible unhygienic causes, and 
above all to give the light and cheer of that 
Truth which alone can fully illumine the 
darkness of the soul, give strength to the faith 
that is weak, with hope and comfort to the 
discouraged and troubled one." 

The time came when heed must be given 
to the claims of a venerated mother, Mrs. 
Preston, who had unselfishly for twenty-six 
years relinquished the companionship of her 
daughter for the service of Christ through 
the activities of the Woman's Missionary 
Society. 

In giving her sixth and closing report from 
Vancouver, Miss Preston says: 

" We have had to find a path and make a 
trail, and gratefully we acknowledge the 
guiding, helping hand of our Lord as step by 

63 



God 

Shelf. 



Strangers and Foreigners 



Miss 

Howie, 

1914. 



Japanese 
Helper. 



step He has led us into the open where, by 
His grace, we have been laying foundations, 
and some building has been accomplished." 

Again was the Society fortunate in being 
able to appoint to this field in 1914 another 
missionary — Miss Jessie L. Howie — who had 
had experience in Japan. The advantage of 
some command of the language is no small 
one, and the work opened up by her prede- 
cessor has been faithfully and zealously con- 
tinued. 

Early in January, 1915, a very glad wel- 
come was given to a young Japanese Chris- 
tian who had come to assist in the work 
among her countrywomen. During the four 
years Hibi San was studying in Japan, Miss 
Howie had had much to do with her, and her 
first year of evangelistic work in Tokyo was 
spent under Miss Howie's supervision. It is 
a great satisfaction to have the work thus 
linked together, and subsequent months have 
shown valuable results. 

As an instance of how combined effort in 
causes that are good may be made with happy 
effect, Miss Howie writes the following: 

"In July Miss Kawai, one of the Y.W.C.A. 

secretaries of Japan, paid a flying visit to 
Vancouver. The Japanese women of the city 
united to do her honor, and she spoke at a 
meeting held in our Mission under the aus- 

01 



Asiatic Foreigners 

pices of the Women's Buddhist Society, the 
Women's Patriotic Society and our Women's 
Christian Society. Over two hundred were 
present and the majority were women. Miss 
Kawai gave an eloquent address and pleaded 
with her countrywomen to ' follow after right- 
eousness.' After the meeting the women 
served a banquet in the night school room. 
Seventy-five sat down to the table. That gath- 
ering showed me the wonderful possibilities 
of this field, as yet sadly indifferent to the 
religion of Jesus Christ. 

" As I work among these people I do not Indiffer 

meet with much opposition, but there is a 2* C p 

spirit of indifference that is deadly to spiri- 

. tual life. And why this indifference ? $ir£fc, 

\ the Oriental is here to earn a Hying andnot 

W> learn a new religion. Here we Jbaye .no 

leisure class, like we have in Japan; all are 

young and ambitious to make good, and that 

means to make money. Second, they have 

their old religion — for here in our midst is 

a Buddhist temple and a priest in charge — 

and altnough under ordinary circumstances 

many are indifferent to its claims, yet when 

death enters their homes they turn to the 

Buddhist priest to bury their dead, as they 

would in their own land. 

^ " Then again the Oriental knows well the 

evils of this Christian land, and treats with 

indifference a teaching that doesn't work out 

in a practical way in the world around him. / 

« 65 




Strangers and Foreigners 

Prayer « We are greatly in need of workers, but 

Urgcd * above all we need tbe prayers of the Chris- 

tian Church. Pray that we who are called 
to serve here may be anointed with power and 
love and patience. Pray that the coldness 
and indifference of the people may be broken 
and that they may long for God and seek Him 
with their whole heart." 



66 



CHAPTER VII. 



EUROPEAN FOREIGNERS. 

THE opportunity and the obligation aris- 
ing from the unexampled immigration 
to our country for many succeeding years, 
especially from South-eastern Europe, have 
met a glad and earnest response from the 
Woman's Missionary Society. In different 
stations this has been manifest in various 
forms. In some cases it has assumed full 
responsibility and supervision; in others it 
has annually contributed the salaries of dea- 
conesses and other workers, who were under 
the guidance of the General Board. 

RUTHENIANS OR AlTSTRIANS IN ALBERTA. 

Difficulties many, problems perplexing and 
of long continuance, have resulted from the 
proud, selfish ambitions of the Babel-tower- 
builders, and these are painfully evident in 
our own age and country. The following, 
quoted in the Missionary Outlook of Septem- 
ber, 1908, from The Christian Guardian is 
an instance : 

" When Italians or Germans or Swedes English 
come to our shores, do we expect them to ©JJJSJ!!? 
remain Italians, Germans and Swedes ? What 

67 



Strangers and Foreigners 

language shall they speak ? This question is 
suggested by a petition from the Kuthenians 
of Manitoba to the Hon. Geo. E. Caldwell, 
Minister of Education for that province, 
praying that the Euthenian language be 
taught in the Euthenian training school at 
Brandon, and that text-books in the Euthenian 
language be used in the Euthenian schools of 
the province. There seems to be no possi- 
bility of the Manitoba authorities granting 
this request, yet the fact that it has been made 
shows us very clearly some of the disintegrat- 
ing forces that are at work, and it should 
cause us the more earnestly to insist that 
those who come to our shores must be pre- 
pared to accept our flag and to adopt our 
language. There can be no compromise here 
without national disaster. The Union Jack 
must fly over our territory and our thousands 
of new citizens must be prepared to learn, 
and have their children learn, the English 
tongue." 

Their own language is by no means pro- 
hibited, but if life to them in our land is 
preferable to their native country, or if they 
desire their children to be no longer termed 
" foreigners," then the laws and language of 
their adopted country should be accepted as 
dominant ; otherwise we would become a sad 
conglomeration of divided, misunderstanding 
sections. 

68 






European Foreigners 

The ability to speak in more than one 
tongue is desirable, but one must surely be 
recognized and required as essential to unity. 

. Wahstao. 

(Centre from which light radiates.) 

" To what purpose is this waste ! M might 
naturally have been exclaimed when in 1905 
a graduate of Victoria University, Toronto, 
Miss Edith A. Weekes, B.A., was appointed 
to work among the Galicians or Euthenians 
of Alberta. The fitness of the appointment, 
however, was soon manifest. 

Few of these people could read ; no teacher ; Miss 
no books; interpreter not very expert. No }Y e £ kes , 
wonder the language was found to be " a daily p r jmei\ 
and crying need." At length some books 
ordered from Austria arrived, and in some 
way our clever graduate, through her know- 
ledge of German, began to see daylight, and 
after a time wrote out a small primer which 
has been of immense service to her co-workers, 
both men and women. 

Three years later Miss Ella A. McLean, 
B.A., pays this tribute: "In looking over 
the year I cannot but think of Miss Weekes, 
especially the permanent value of her lan- 
guage study. We who follow find that she 
blazed the trail, and what at first seemed 
an insurmountable task is now within the 
reach of any who have the will and heart to 
work at it." 

69 






Miss 
McLean. 



School in 
Home. 



Strangers and Foreigners 

It will be of interest in connection with 
these two devoted workers to state that Miss 
Weekes in 1910 was married to Mr. W. M. 
Leonard. After a time of faithful labor in 
Alberta they were appointed to China, where 
they are helping to build up the Master's 
kingdom in connection with our Church. 

Miss McLean, in December, 1913, became 
the wife of a fellow worker among the Aus- 
trians, Kev. P. G. Sutton, and in three months 
was called to larger service in the presence of 
her Saviour. A little body with a brave, big 
heart, she left a wide gap in the community 
she so loved and helped. 

The previous volume tells of a day school 
of twenty in our little home at Wahstao (over 
eighty miles north-east of Edmonton) and in 
winter a night school for men and boys. 

In 1907-8 a Government school was built 
in the vicinity, and since the people were 
made to some extent responsible for its sup- 
port, the attendance has increased. One of 
our missionaries, Miss E. Kubie Kobinson, 
is now the teacher and under her the children 
rapidly progress. 

Through subsequent years this public 
school has been open from May to October, 
with an average attendance in 1916 of over 
forty, and in the winter months our little 
mission school in the Home has welcomed all 
who would come. 

70 



European Foreigners 

Miss Chace, a worthy successor of our 
pioneers, writes: " The strategic importance 
of the public school cannot be over-empha- 
sized. It is, humanly speaking, the surest 
weapon that can be used against ignorance 
and bigotry." 

The diligent zeal of the missionaries in 
visiting the homes of the people, teaching 
them to read the Bible for themselves, urging 
the putting away of strong drink and other 
evil practices, was not acceptable to the Greek 
Orthodox priest, who occasionally looked 
after his flock, and the effect of his inter- 
ference was manifest in reduced attendance 
at Sunday school. Soon, however, it was 
observed that there was " a growing spirit 
of independence and freer thought among the 
people, which, with further development and 
under the Spirit's guidance, augurs well for 
the future advance of the Kingdom." 

The physical strain of driving in a few Long 
months 2,500 to 2,700 miles over rough roads Drives. 
is no light one. " Daily distances are neces- 
sarily limited by the necessity of being at 
home at night. There are no stopping-places 
by the way," Miss Sanford says, " and there 
are disadvantages about staying over-night 
in a one-roomed house." 

To reach a little Sunday school held in a 
private house three miles distant " four fences 
have to be opened, requiring nerve, patience 
and muscle." 

71 



Strangers and Foreigners 



Six Little 
Boarders. 



Home 

Enlarged. 



Tornado. 



Early it became evident that there were 
greater possibilities than the day school could 
afford, and though this house was small our 
missionaries made room for six little resident 
boarders. " Two of these have already given 
themselves to Christ, and only those living 
with them can realize how much this means." 
In 1914-15 the staff was increased by the 
arrival of a third worker, Miss S. E. Fergu- 
son, which was a great relief. Conference also 
stationed one of the Ruthenian pastors, Mr. 
Hannochko, at Wahstao, and all rejoiced at 
having a service every Sunday evening. 

Encouraged by what had been accom- 
plished, and being more and more impressed 
with the growing need of instruction and 
careful training, it was decided to enlarge the 
Home, so as to accommodate more children, 
who were clamoring to be admitted, especially 
in sixty-below-zero weather. 

Plans were made and operations com- 
menced in the summer of 1916, when, 
although it was properly " jacked up " for 
the purpose of laying cement foundations, a 
tornado in a few minutes overturned the 
building enough to necessitate thorough recon- 
struction. 

Gratitude predominates because no harm 
came to our two missionaries, Misses Hick- 
man and Ferguson, who were in the building, 
nor to the contractor and three workmen, but 
it was a close call. 



72 




HOME AND BOARDING SCHOOL 

Wahstao. Alta. 



** 
% . 


B *1 BLB JL" L* 


i 


w , ^ 


H ;•«! 



HOME AND BOARDING SCHOOL 
Kolokreeka. Alta. 



European Foreigners 

The visit, especially at this time, of Mrs. 
James Harrison, secretary for the Austrian 
field, was much appreciated. Her counsel 
and cheer at all our stations did much to help 
these somewhat isolated toilers, as well as 
those in Edmonton. 

KoLOKREEKA, SMOKY LAKE. 
(Russian word meaning " Beside the Creek.") 

Missionaries are genuine pioneers, ever 
alert for enlarged opportunities of service. 
Our own are no exception, and so we find 
them in 1909 at Kolokreeka, about sixteen 
miles north-west of Wahstao. 

It does not surprise us to discover that the 
Misses Weekes and McLean moved over from 
Wahstao, bringing their experience to bear 
on the development of this new centre. 

The house was built under their super- 
vision, with a temperature ranging from zero 
to fifty below, and they moved in during the 
first week of January, while the carpenters 
were still in possession. 

Miss Weekes describes the house as " cosy 
and comfortable. We have a splendid stable 
and drive-shed under one roof, with a loft 
large enough to hold hay for the whole win- 
ter. We are proud of our little home and are 
already much attached to the place and 
people." 

73 



Strangers and Foreigners 



M Cricket 
and 

Spider/' 
" Peter 
and Pat." 



'Austrian. 



Feeling 

After 

God. 



The need of a stable and occupants is very 
evident when we remember the widely-scat- 
tered homes to be visited, the various Sunday 
schools and sewing meetings to be conducted. 
Thus " Cricket and Spider " at Kolokreeka, 
with " Peter and Pat " at Wahstao, deserve 
an honorable place in the record of our work. 
The faithful teaching of the Word bore fruit 
in the establishment during this year of a 
church under Dr. Lawford, with fifteen 
adult foreign members. 

About this time " it was decided at the 
Alberta Conference that the name ' Austrian ' 
should be applied to the work among the for- 
eigners of Northern Alberta. The name 
' Galician,' so much used, is non-comprehen- 
sive, and, applied to the large majority, is 
just as much a mistake as it would be to call 
an Irishman ' Scotch.' l Austrian ' includes 
all our people coming from different pro- 
vinces " of south-eastern Europe. 

Our missionaries are not wedded to any 
special method. One writes : " We used to 
think our visiting must be somewhat formal, 
singing, reading, prayer, etc., and if the 
women happened to be at work outdoors this 
could not very well be done, but we are learn- 
ing the value of making opportunities. If a 
woman is weeding her garden and we offer to 
help, we get close in touch in a few minutes, 
and often without a book or anything that 
suggests another faith (of which they are so 

74 



European Foreigners 

much afraid), we find that she is deeply in 
earnest. To the question, ' Can we know our 
sins forgiven V many a time they say, ' Oh, it 
would be good to know, but from where can 
we know?' An old lady over eighty was 
visited a number of times, and one day she 
said, ' When we confess our sins to God, He 
makes it easy here,' laying the old withered 
hand on her heart. 

u Another woman in the hospital, when we 
read to her, ' I am the way, the truth, and 
the life/ said, * Oh, if I have Jesus, I have 
the way, the truth, and the life — without 
reading.' This had been her grief, that she 
could not read, and she thought without read- 
ing she could not find Jesus. 

" I overtook a lad one day and gave him 
a ride. I spoke of seeing him at the sacra- 
ment service, and asked if he did not want 
to follow Jesus. His answer was, ' Very 
much I want to, but I do not know. I cannot 
read.' A chum of his walks four miles to the 
school and is seldom absent. It is pathetic 
to see them treasuring up the new words on 
bits of paper to take home and learn during 
the week." 

Is it not worth while to help such ? 

A little group of children " had learned in 
English ' eyes,' ' ears,' ' mouth,' ' nose,' etc., 
and were telling the use of these various 
organs in Russian. Eyes are good to see, ears 
to hear, mouth to eat, etc. They hesitated 

75 



i9ii. 



Strangers and Foreigners 

over nose, until one little fellow suddenly 
remembered, ' Nose good to sneeze.' 

" One little girl learned very rapidly to 
speak English, for talk she would, and Rus- 
sian was forbidden." 

In the winter of 1910-11 " Miss McLean 
and Miss Code took four children into their 
own already close quarters in order to give 
them the influence of a Christian home and to 
teach Canadian ways of living." Neighbor- 
ing little ones joined them in the daytime 
and larger boys in the evenings. 
Building Over a dozen parents urged the taking in 

Enlarged f their children, and with such good pros- 
pects, extension was resolved upon. The 
door of opportunity was very evident to Mrs. 
Ross as well as to the workers concerned, and 
her visit here, as elsewhere, gave much 
encouragement and assurance. 

The planned extension grew to be larger 
than the original building, and its erection 
was no light task. Difficulties were neither 
few nor light, and they furnish a little 
glimpse of the inconveniences of life far from 
a railway — delays, repeated storms, a haul of 
lumber sixty miles by fourteen teams, slip- 
pery hills, a drop in temperature to thirty 
below — no wonder the undertaking had to be 
postponed till spring. At length the building 
was completed and opened, November 1st, 
1911. 

76 



European Foreigners 

The children took great pride in their dor- 
mitories and were so proud when permitted 
to show their clean, comfortable beds to their 
parents when they called. The picture of 
their daily routine is very attractive. 

This Home at Kolokreeka has been selected Summer 
as the gathering place for the yearly confer- C n C " a „ d 
ence of all the workers among the Ruthenians, Language 
followed by a fortnight's language school, School, 
devoted to Euthenian grammar, conversation, 
composition, Bible and hymn study. This 
little summer conference is most refreshing 
and helpful. 

During the winter months of 1913-14 
thirty day pupils and thirty-one boarders for 
a longer or shorter period were registered, 
among them several clever students. Miss 
Yarwood says : " The school work is in a state 
of transition and we must keep adapting our- 
selves to changing conditions. Government 
summer schools are being opened all about 
us, and as they become yearly schools we may 
have to go farther afield for pupils." 

"Russian is taught by Miss Yarwood for an 
hour four mornings in the week. Miss Stone, 
in charge of the school and the night classes, 
finds the reading of war reports an oppor- 
tunity of enlarging the vocabulary of the 
senior pupils. 

During the year over 1,100 Ruthenians 
came with various needs and requests — 287 

77 



Strangers and Foreigners 

for treatment of toothache, colds and wounds, 
83 to have letters read and written. 

" In the pastor's absence we held a Sunday 
morning service ourselves on the plan of a 
Mission Band, which aroused considerable 
interest and enthusiasm, resulting in one of 
our boys saying, ' I want to give some money 
to missions ; it is one thing I can do for Jesus, 
and another thing I can do is to pray. I just 
thought if, when I am a preacher and no one 
would send money to missions, how could I 
get my living V " 

Miss Sanford writes : " East and west, 
north and south, this Home and its workers 
are beloved. The hymns that have been sung, 
the stories read and explained, the English 
and Russian taught, and, I believe, most of 
all, the hours that have been spent by the 
side of sick and dying, have all had a pre- 
cious, lasting influence. The work is slow, 
but sure, for it has been started on the best 
of all foundations — loving prayer and faith 
in God." 

Miss Black asks : " Is time and money 
spent in Kuthenian work worth while? If 
others could see the Christian character of 
Annetza, Katrina, Mena, Willie, and others, 
especially one home where we hold Sunday 
school, the answer would be, ' Yes.' These 

78 



European Foreigners 

alone are worth the price. If you could get 
a glimpse of these young lives I am sure we 
would hear whispers, i It is worth while.' " 

Chipman. 

One of our faithful representatives, Miss 
Ethelwyn G. Chace, after her return from 
furlough in 1912, eagerly took up a new 
section, not in the country, but in Chipman, 
an English-speaking town on the C.N.K., 
about forty-seven miles south-west of Wah- 
stao, surrounded by a foreign colony. 

A place in the home of Eev. C. W. W. and 
Mrs. Boss was most kindly offered and 
accepted, and for four years a busy life of 
visiting, teaching in Sunday school, and in 
all available ways, has evidenced the com- 
radeship and real interest of the true Chris- 
tian missionary, but the ground being well 
covered by the missionaries of the General 
Board, with an organized church and Sunday 
school, Miss Chace was appointed in 19 1G to 
the ever-growing work in Edmonton. 

One little instance illustrates : 

" The happiest visit I have had at a cer- 
tain home was one day when I found the 
whole family out in the field hoeing. I took 
the hoe from the wife's hands and used it on 
the potatoes while she rested, and we all 
chatted together. Mine host invited me to 

79 



Prohibition 
Campaign 
Helped by 
Foreign 
Vote. 



Strangers and Foreigners 

come and live with them this winter to teach 
them English and perfect my Eussian. I 
gladly consented, at least for part time, 
though I do not think he believed me in 
earnest ; but he will see." 

The year 1914-15 was especially marked 
by two lines of effort — a protracted series of 
evangelistic services in connection with the 
church and the memorable prohibition cam- 
paign which culminated in such a successful 
vote on July 21st. The foreign vote was one 
of the doubtful features, and nothing was 
left undone that could be thought of to ensure 
a Kuthenian " dry " majority. The result- 
ing vote itself was only one of the good 
results of the campaign. The Methodist 
Church stands for the good of the people, 
such is the people's " conclusion. On voting 
day one of our Euthenian women was 
taunted by neighbors because her boys were 
seen in our children's parade. 

" Let them be Methodists," she retorted, 
" better that than hotel loafers like some of 

you !" ' 

The campaign also furnished an opening 
into many new homes ; so the circle widens. 

Medical. — The Society supplies a nurse 
for the hospital at Pakan, under the superin- 
tendence of Dr. Lawford, and another for 
the one at Lamont under Dr. Eush. 



80 



European Foreigners 

Edmonton. 

It was early recognized that the city, with 
its ever-increasing influx of foreigners, fur- 
nished a most insistent plea for the watchful, 
friendly effort of Christian workers, espe- 
cially on behalf of young girls seeking 
employment in homes, hotels and restaurants. 
Under the counsel of a committee appointed 
to look into conditions, a room in the east 
end was secured, February, 1908, which soon 
had to be abandoned for a larger one. Here 
an afternoon class was formed for sewing, 
which had an average attendance of twenty- 
five. By degrees there was introduced the 
singing of hymns, a Bible story and the 
Lord's Prayer. 

Soon it was felt that more should be done 
for girls in domestic service, so a second room 
was rented, this time in the west end. Here 
night school was held five evenings in the 
week, having one or more volunteer teachers 
each evening. Thirty-four names were en- 
rolled, two Germans and thirty-two Galicians. 
Mrs. Ash, formerly Miss Sherlock, of our 
Home in Victoria, very kindly supervised this 
work, giving much time, sympathy and prac- 
tical aid to these exposed but unsuspecting 
newcomers. 

It is in the nature of healthy plants to 
grow, and soon we find it was decided to 
establish a " Home for Buthenian Girls." 

« 81 



Strangers and Foreigners 



A Home 
for 

Ruthenian 
Girls. 



A house was rented, 23 Eice Street, and 
possession taken October 22nd, 1908, with 
Miss Munro (our pioneer at Wahstao, the 
beginning of our Austrian work) in charge. 
The following week the classes under Mrs. 
Ash's supervision were transferred. Miss 
Munro writes : 

" For some months the success of the 
experiment seemed doubtful. But knowing 
the great need, and realizing that our aim was 
in perfect accord with that for which Christ 
came into the world, and encouraged by the 
Advisory Committee and our associate work- 
ers, we went on, until now ' The Home ' seems 
to be really established. 

" Our hope is that this Home may be an 
uplifting force for every Ruthenian girl in 
household work in the city. To this end we 
have classes in English reading, that they 
may learn to read the Bible. But we hope to 
make our Home and work helpful even to 
the many girls who do not wish to learn to 
read. We have tried to make it homelike, 
restful and attractive, a place in which the 
girls are always sure to find a welcome and 
a friend. The wide verandah, shady lawn 
and prolific pansy bed have been no small aid 
in doing this. 

" In order to get acquainted with girls we 
have visited many hotels. To some we have 
gone again and again, for we have learned 

82 



European Foreigners 

that six visits to one hotel produces better 
results than one visit to six. Much time has 
been given to girls out of work. To these we 
give a night's lodging for ten cents, and meals 
at ten cents each. Of course, sometimes this 
charge has had to be remitted. We advise 
them about places and try to find respectable 
places for them and to induce them to prefer 
such. Sometimes these transients wash their 
clothes in the Home, and sometimes we have 
helped them to make new garments. Very 
often, after having done much for them, they 
take a position and we never see them again, 
but sometimes it is the beginning of a helpful 
friendship." 

A very acceptable gift to the Home was a 
telephone from the ladies of the three Meth- 
odist city churches, saving much time and 
strength. 

At the expiration of a year, removal was 
made to more commodious quarters on Eliza- 
beth Street, and Miss Munro's failing health 
having obliged her to relinquish her loved 
work, for which she was so eminently fitted, 
the Home was placed in charge of another 
capable and experienced worker, Miss Ida M. 
Clarke. 

A new step was taken this same year, 1909, Th *ee New 
in the opening of a sewing class in a tent in Centres - 
Norwood, a section of the north end of the 
city, also at Fraser Flats (later called Kiver- 

83 



Strangers and Foreigners 

dale), in the east end, down in the valley of 
the Saskatchewan, where half the residents 
are foreigners. This tent, placed at onr 
disposal by Professor Riddell, was called 
" Rnndle Mission," where Sunday school was 
held and preaching services conducted by 
students of Alberta College. Again, in Sep- 
tember, 1914, similar work was begun in 
Strathcona, making three helpful centres in 
the city, besides the Home. 
Property Growth is still evident, property having 

Purchased, been purchased by the Society at 520 Third 
Street, and possession being taken by the 
Edmonton Home and School for Ruthenian 
Girls in March, 1911. 

" Much time was spent, and many meet- 
ings held by the property committee, before 
a suitable place for our new home was 
secured, into which we moved in March. We 
hope to make it so attractive that many poor 
girls spending their days in close, hot hotel 
and restaurant kitchens, may come to us to 
pass a pleasant hour and feel they have a 
home. 

" The house is small — six rooms and a 
lean-to kitchen. It was thought at first that 
it might be repaired and enlarged, but when 
examined was found to be too poorly built 
and the foundation too badly gone. So we 
are asking for a new building, which will be 
commodious enough to carry on the work 
more efficiently. " 

84 




RUTHENIAN HOME 
Edmonton, Alta. 




HOSPITAL? - 



European Foreigners 

No little planning, consultation and corre- £ew^ 
spondence preceded the removal temporarily ^ c ™& 
of the house, with its occupants and continued 1912. 
work, to the back of the lot, and the erection 
of the convenient and commodious three- 
story building, which it is hoped will remain 
the permanent centre of our city work. In 
this undertaking the local churches took a # 
very deep interest, cheerfully contributing 
no less than $1,800, with more expected. 

The new Home was completed in Decem- 
ber, 1912. Its many conveniences were much 
appreciated by the staff, and having a recep- 
tion room of their own was a great attraction 
to the girls. The endeavor was to make the 
room as inviting as possible, so that they 
would bring their friends to the Home rather 
than meet them elsewhere. 

Dealing with human lives is vastly differ- 
ent from handling bricks and mortar; the 
appliances may be as complete as possible, 
but how to approach souls and win them is 
a more delicate problem. 

Any influence must be personal and exerted 
casually in such a fluctuating household, with 
transients in search of work and staying per- 
haps a day or two, or even with roomers who 
go to work at 7 or 7.30 in the morning and 
who, naturally, love to be out in the evening ; 
but notwithstanding the difficulties and dis- 
couragements, it is evident that the Home is 

85 



Strangers and Foreigners 

a centre of blessing reaching nine or more 
nationalities. 

Night " Through the night school we have been 

Schoo . aD j e to to^k man y ii ves • we nave reached 

not only the Kuthenian people, but girls of 
other nationalities who were anxious to come 
to our school ; we were fortunate in securing 
the help of three public school teachers, whose 
zeal for the work and deep interest in the 
girls went a long way towards making our 
school a success. The half-hour after class, 
when the girls gathered around the organ to 
help in the singing, was a deep attraction to 
the girls, and who can tell what words may 
not have found a response in some heart and 
given that one a vision of a higher life ? Many 
times have I seen tears in the eyes of different 
girls, and I knew they were thinking of their 
life that had been marred by sin, and I am 
sure by the words of the hymns was born a 
wish for a purer life. We had an enrolment of 
one hundred and eighty-eight, with an average 
of nineteen. 

" The work, with all its problems and prom- 
ises for the future, claims our hearts' deep- 
est interest. In our impatience we would 
see the light of Jesus Christ dawning in these 
lives in our own time ; some writer has said, 
' God never works only for to-day ; His plans 
run on and on. The web He weaves is from 
everlasting to everlasting, and if I can fill a 

86 



European Foreigners 

part of that web, be it ever so insignificant, 
it will abide forever.' It is a comfort to ns 
to know that whether our work be small or 
great, if done in the spirit of the Master it 
will not be lost but will bring forth fruit to 
the glory of God." 

During 1915-16, from various causes, 
changes occurred in the staff — Miss Code 
withdrawing to become the wife of Rev. P. G. 
Sutton, Miss Addison to take her furlough, 
Miss Inglis returning home on account of 
ill-health, Mrs. Snyder also taking a rest after 
her years of earnest labor as the Home Super- 
intendent, caring for the ninety-three girls 
who during the year had been sheltered for 
a longer or shorter period. "Thirty-one of 
these were steady roomers, twelve attending 
Sunday school; twenty-one were on the roll 
of the night school, and there were also classes 
in cooking and fancy work. 

Besides Sunday schools and sewing classes 
we read of Mission Bands at Riverdale, Kin- 
istino and Norwood studying " China for 
Juniors " and " Japan for Juniors," and con- 
tributing money out of their poverty to the 
Kingdom of God, while thus having their 
vision widened. 



87 



CHAPTER VIII. 

MANY NATIONALITIES. 



I 



All Peoples' Mission, Winnipeg. 

T would be difficult to express in more 
condensed and at the same time more 
comprehensive terms the varied work car- 
ried on among our new populations in Win- 
/ nipeg and elsewhere than is found in the first 
edition of " The Story of the Years," from 
\ the pen of Rev. J. S. Woodsworth, B.A., to 
whom the continuance and guidance of this 
mission are so largely indebted. 
Classes The forms of effort are thus outlined : Work / 

and Clubs. amo ng English-speaking people ; among chil- 
dren of all nationalities (this includes Sunday 
schools, Boys' Brigades, Bands of Hope,/ 
Junior Leagues) ; immigration wo A: ; kinder-/ 
gartens'; deaconess work, which includes visit-f 
ing, relief, sewing classes, kitchen-garden, 
night school, fresh-air camp, etc. ; work among 
All People: Poles, Germans, Ruthenians, Bohemians, 
Hebrews and Syrians. There ar&iour ^cen- 
tres u Maple Street (All Peoples'), Burrows 
Avenue, Stella Avenue Institute and Suther- 
land Avenue Institute. 

Rev. Arthur O. Rose, the present Super- 
intendent of the Mission, says : " The fact 

88 




SUTHERLAND AVE. INSTITUTE 

All Peoples' Mission. 'Winnipeg, Man. 




Miss Cunningham and a group of foreign girls, Sault Ste. Marie, Ont. 



Many Nationalities 

that our Mission stood for < All People ' has 
won the way to the hearts of our Austrian 
Slavs in this time of great international anti- 
pathies, ana our Institutes have been crowded 
night after night with men and women who 
had found in us true friends. We believe that 
the constructive work of the past (among 
children), accentuated by present-day condi- 
tions, has opened to us the hearts of the J 
adults. In districts from 50 to 90 per cent. \ I 
non-English-speaking, our eleven paid and 
one hundred and twenty-seven regular volun- 
teer workers go about preaching the Gospel, 
a gospel of love to God and Christian brother- 
hood among men." 

In this effort the representatives of the 
W.M.S. act the part of the " big sister," one 
Polish woman's testimony being, (< I never 
expected to meet in my life so kind and good 
a young woman." 

The need is increasingly apparent; the 
efforts made are still unflagging ; the results 
are more and more encouraging. 

Frank, Alta. ; Fernie and Michel, B.C. 

The presence of numerous foreigners in 
the mining region of Crow's Nest Pass fur- 
nished a strong call for an earnest, common- 
sense, courageous Christian woman to visit 
the homes and help in the uplift of the people. 
Since 1911 Miss Hannah M. Paul (formerly 

89 



Strangers and Foreigners 



Itinerant. 

Social 
Service. 



teacher in our Crosby Girls' Home) has been 
going in and out, showing kindness, visiting 
the sick, distributing relief when necessary, 
teaching English, sewing classes, Bible 
classes, etc. 

The townsite of Frank, however, having 
been condemned by mining experts following 
the extensive earthslides of 1912, the Execu- 
tive advised removal, and Eernie was chosen. 
Several settlements or hamlets cluster in this 
neighborhood, 70 per cent, of the inhabitants 
being Austrian and Italian. 

Miss Paul has adopted the plan of spend- 
ing one week in Michel and Natal and the 
following in Fernie. From the Sunday school 
at Natal three Hungarians and two Slavs, also 
two women of Slav descent (previously Luth- 
erans), joined our church at Easter, 1915. 
A Mission Band has been formed at Fernie, 
an evidence that the sympathy and efforts of 
the local church are not confined to the Pass. 

As elsewhere, drink is the great enemy of 
the community. Let us hope that since the 
establishment of the prohibitory law there 
may come a greater desire for education and 
other uplifting influences. Classes in Eng- 
lish and sewing have been continued. Bush 
fires, floods and a terrific mine explosion in 
the summer of 1916 brought sorrow and loss 
to many of these foreign settlers, to whom 
Miss Paul has endeavored to bring comfort 
and courage. 



90 



Many Nationalities 

Prince Rupert, B.C. 

A few years' experience in our W.M.S. JPJJ* 
certainly produces capable pioneers to open 
up new places, another instance being the 
appointment to Prince Rupert in 1915 of 
Miss Frances E. Hudson, who had for years 
so efficiently presided over our Home at Port 
Simpson. Here she had the satisfaction of 
finding several of the Indian ex-pupils settled 
and " doing well, living straight, and true to 
the teaching received." 

An Auxiliary, a Mission Band (attended 
by many nationalities), a weekly prayer- 
meeting and a sewing class were soon formed. 

Though the foreigners may not yet under- 
stand English, they do understand kindness, 
and they also greatly appreciate copies of the 
Gospel in their own language and ours 
together. 

Vancouver, B.C. 

A deaconess was granted in 1915 to Central 
Church to work among foreigners, of whom 
she found there were in her district 2,832, of 
forty different nationalities and having news- 
papers printed in twenty-five different lan- 
guages. The undertaking must seem tre- 
mendously formidable, but a beginning has 
been made in a kindergarten, a Sunday school, 
personal visits, classes for women and young 
girls. 

91 



Strangers and Foreigners 

Wesley Institute, Fort William, Ont. 

Similar work, but on a much larger scale, 
is being carried on at Fort William, but here 
there is the immense advantage of having a 
centre where many activities can be con- 
ducted. Wesley Institute was opened Decem- 
ber, 1912. With an enthusiastic Superintend- 
ent, Rev. J. M. Shaver, and a corps of sixteen 
. voluntary helpers, the W.M.S. bears its share 
by providing for two missionaries or deacon- 
esses. 

All Peoples' Mission, Sault Ste. Marie, 
Ont. 

Some six years ago a small Sunday school 
was started by two gentlemen in a district of 
Sault Ste. Marie known as " Little Italy," a 
name misleading to outsiders, it being as 
cosmopolitan a spot as one might find any- 
where. 

As the Sunday school had occupied the 

Finnish Temperance Hall, naturally the large 

majority of the pupils were Finns. 

MissCun- September, 1913, was marked by the 

ningham. arrival of Miss M. J. Cunningham, under 

appointment of the W.M.S., so familiar to its 

members through her twenty years of labor 

in Japan. 

A Winning It did not take long for her affectionate 

Force. nature to respond to the bright-eyed, lovable 

little foreigners, nor for her experienced mind 

92 



Many Nationalities 

to devise ways of winning them to better 
things than their surroundings presented. 
Sewing, stories, games, singing, concerts, pic- 
nics, the use of a playground through the 
kindness of the School Board and equipped 
with games by the W.M.S., all had their part 
and helped to open the doors of forty homes 
during the first year. 

Feeling the need of some place in which to 
welcome the women, Miss Cunningham suc- 
ceeded in finding "a room, nine feet by twelve 
feet, and no way of entering it except through 
a store and poolroom combined." The fur- 
nishings were donated, and here during the 
winter she had the pleasure of entertaining 
107 women and children, besides distributing 
many articles of clothing. 

A glimpse of another side of the work 
appears — a a depressing, heart-sickening side. 
Drunkenness, congestion in the manner of 
living, no church, no building in which an 
evening service could be held, no Sabbath — 
for work goes on three hundred and sixty-five 
days in the year — ' strangers in our midst ' 
generally living in little separate communi- 
ties and seldom coming in touch with the best 
side of Canadian life. So much to keep them 
down ! So little to help them up I" 

With courageous heart and faith in God, Promoted. 
Miss Cunningham applied herself to her task, 
and was steadily winning her way, when in 
the midst of her activities she became ill, and 

93 



Strangers and Foreigners 

after three weeks she was at rest in the Home 
above. 

Her pastor, Eev. G. S. Faircloth, who had 
been her friend and adviser, testified to the 
value of her work and in every way possible 
supplied the place of a brother. 

Just before her illness she was preparing 
the mission children to present the cantata 
" Gates Ajar." 

Her memorial service was on Easter Sun- 
day, 1916, and this cantata, given the Sunday 
after, " came as a message from the world 
above." " Who could plan a more fitting ser- 
vice? Who could leave a more Christ-like 
good-bye with the scores of bereft little 
hearts ?" 

It was with much satisfaction the Execu- 
tive was able to secure a trained and 
experienced deaconess — Miss Haddock — to 
undertake the work at Sault Ste. Marie. 

* Italians. 

In 190# a beginning had just been made i 
to reach the strangers from sunny Italy. Our 
fefforts in Toronto have centred chiefly in the 
Elm Street Italian Mission of our Church, ' 
though two new stations have more recently * 
been opened, at 160 Claremont Street and on 
Dufferin Street. 

Kindergartens, Sunday schools, night 
schools, Boys' and Girls' Clubs, Mothers' 

94 




ITALIAN MISSIONS, TORONTO 
Elm Street. 2. Claremont Street. 3. Dufferin Street. 



Many Nationalities 

Meetings, and visits by Bible-women and dea- 
conesses have resulted in improved conditions 
both in hearts and homes. Many of the chil- 
dren have graduated into the public schools, 
and are in a fair way to become intelligent 
and useful citizens. 

Similar though no^-as extensive work was 
commenced in Hamilton in 1914. The 
W.M.S. also supports a worker among the 
Italians in Montreal. 






95 



JAPAN 



Tokyo 

Shizuoka 

Kofu 

Kanazawa 

Toyama 

Nagano 

Ueda 



JAPAN 



JAPAN! Is there another geographical 
term that presents to the imagination 
another such picture as the word Japan? 
England, Paris, Greece, Rome, these names 
likewise affect the imagination, and each 
calls up before the mind a variety of scenes 
and associations which are full of interest: 
England, the romance of history, the flower 
of character, the spread of empire; Paris, 
brilliancy, gaiety, pleasure; Greece, the per- 
fections of antiquity; Rome, age, power, 
splendor, ecclesiastical domain. 

Japan stands for something different from 
all of these, and in some ways a good deal 
more, though in most ways on a smaller scale. 
But for situation, for scenery, for venerable 
years and bounding youth, for possessions 
and ambitions, for actual performance and 
for hopeful promise, Japan is almost by 
itself among the nations. "Unique" means 
the only one of the kind. Japan is < < unique. ' ' 
There is only one Japan. — Edward Abbott. 



CHAPTER IX. 



JAPAN. 



MARVELLOUS transitions have occurred 
in the Sunrise Kingdom during the 
ast sixty-three years ; an awakening not only 
of its own people but of other nationalities 
concerning it ; a growing mutual respect and 
interest, with profit on both sides, from better 
acquaintance and exchanged benefits. The 
Anglo-Japanese Treaty of recent years has no 
doubt strengthened confidence and led to in- 
creased favor towards Western thought and 
Christian ideals. 

In a population of say sixty millions there 
are but some thousands who acknowledge 
themselves followers of Christ; their influ- 
ence, however, is far beyond their numerical 
standing. 

Even royal appreciation has been evidenced 
by posthumous honors to Joseph ISTeesima, 
LL.D., and Kakewa Yamamoto, the founders 
of Doshisha, the first Christian University in 
Japan ; and, at the coronation of the present 
Emperor seven out of the fourteen decora- 
tions were conferred on well-known Chris- 
tians, one being the Hon. S. Ebara, a member 
of the House of Peers and a Methodist ; the 
other Colonel Yamamura, the head of the 

99 



Japan 

Salvation Army. Also prominent Christian 
women were recognized — Mrs. Yajima for 
her work in the W.C.T.U., and Miss Tsuda, 
the principal of a large school for girls. 

Education has been generously fostered 
until practically all the nation is at school 
from six to twelve years of age, but even non- 
Christian statesmen recognize the necessity of 
something more to produce moral character 
and a sound nation. Some of their leading 
men freely acknowledge the marked super- 
iority of results from the teaching and true 
life of Christianity to those produced by any 
other form of religion. 

Our Church began its work in Japan in 
1873, and the Woman's Missionary Society 
nine years later. 

An event of marked importance occurred Union of 
in 1906, the first year of our continued story, $(*ethodist 
viz., the union of the three Methodist organ- 
izations already operating — the M. E. Church, 
the M. E. Church, South (both of the United 
States), and the Canadian — forming what is 
now known as " The Methodist Church of 
Japan." 

This consummation was effected through 
Commissioners from the respective bodies, in 
co-operation with the Japanese. Our own 
honored representatives were Rev. A. Car- 
man, D.D., General Superintendent, and 
Eev. A. Sutherland, D.D., General Secretary 
of the Board of Missions, whose visit was 

101 



Churches. 



Japan 

highly valued not only for the official help 
given but for its refreshing influence socially. 
The membership of this united Methodist 
Church now numbers 12,750, an increase of 
60 per cent, since 1907, and the enrolment in 
Sunday schools is 32,734, an increase of 80 
per cent. Cheering, but how few in compari- 
son with the four and a half millions for 
whom our Church is held responsible. 



102 







GIRLS' BOARDING SCHOOL 
Tokyo. Japan 




ACADEMIC DEPARTMENT 

Tokyo, Japan 

118 girls waiting for their new class rooms 



CHAPTER X. 

TOKYO. 

THE year 1906-7 seems to have been one World's 
of special privilege, an important event gjjjjjjj 
being the Conference in Tokyo of the World's Federation. 
Christian Students' Federation. _ Besides 
general meetings, which were most inspiring, 
there were three afternoon gatherings of 
school girls held in our Azabu school, when 
forty of the teachers, students and servants 
took a definite step Christward. 

A welcome indication of rising moral sen- 
timent was shown by an official request for 
help in dealing with strangers at the railway 
station, especially with young women who 
were crowding to the city during the Exhibi- 
tion — virtually Travellers' Aid work. In 
conjunction with others a house was secured 
where many found shelter and guidance. 
Over 13,000 gospels and more than 100,000 
tracts were distributed. 

On a busy street not far from our property Juban. 
is the site on which was the first Methodist 
church in that district — Juban. This small 
lot was generously passed over to the Woman's 
Missionary Society by the Board of Missions. 
Towards the erection of a building $1,200 
was granted by our Board, the girls of the 

103 



Japan 



Carman 
Hall. 



Household 
Science. 



Azabu school adding $400 and promising 
more. It was with great joy the little orphanage 
family took possession, November, 1908. Miss 
Hargrave writes : " Carman Hall ! I trust it 
was a pardonable liberty we took when we 
gave the above name to the Juban building. 
True, it is not just the kind of edifice we 
would name after our great Dr. Carman, 
but when we consider former days, and what 
the building stands for — orphanage, model 
Sunday school, kindergarten, a place for 
women's meetings, for general evangelistic 
meetings, free bath and a free dispensary in 
contemplation — we are glad to have the name 
Carman connected with it." 

Here, with the help of the pastor and 
members of the Azabu church, evangelistic 
meetings were opened. " The large front 
room, seating about a hundred, was well filled 
every night, inspiring addresses being given 
by Dr. Coates, Dr. Hiraiwa, Hon. Yaro Ando 
and others. As a result nineteen expressed 
a desire to study Christianity. 

" The normal class for Sunday-school 
workers under Miss Craig numbers thirty, 
who in their twelve little meeting-places 
touch an average aggregate of about four hun- 
dred children each Sunday afternoon, one 
thousand names being enrolled during the 
year." 

The year 1907-8 witnessed the erection of 
an addition to the Azabu building consisting 



101 




THE SENIOR CLASS 

Household Science Kitchen. Azabu School, 
Tokyo, Japan 




THE JUNIOR CLASS 

Household Science Dining Room. Azabu School. 

Tokyo. Japan 



Tokyo 

of three stories, one of which was planned, 
furnished and fully equipped by the late 
Mrs. Massey-Treble, of Toronto, Ont., for 
the Household Science Department. Her in- 
telligent grasp of what was needful, her 
experience, her attention to the minutest 
detail, and her generous heart, gave to our 
mission what is considered the finest plant in 
Japan for the prosecution of this study. For 
years Miss Hargrave and others in all the 
stations had accomplished much in this line 
with very limited facilities, so that great sat- 
isfaction was felt when in January, 1909, 
classes found accommodation in the new 
building. 

A graduate from the Lillian Massey 
School, Toronto, Miss Margaret D. Keagey, 
B.H.Sc, after some months at the language, 
was ready to take charge. Bible instruction 
regularly accompanies the lessons on home 
life, and thus many ladies who would not 
otherwise be reached are brought under 
Christian teaching. 

Ebb and flow is not confined to the watery 
deep ; popular opinion or feeling is apt to be 
unstable, and in 1909 there came a sudden 
and adverse change in regard to higher edu- 
cation for women. Miss Blackmore, the cap- 
able principal, at that time, of our Azabu 
school, writes : " The attendance at the gov- 
ernment schools of the city has fallen about 

105 



Japan 



Gym- 
nasium. 



Memorial 
to Miss F. 
E. Palmer. 



Night 
School for 
Factory 

Girls. 



30 per cent. ; our own loss is less than 10 per 
cent., and really 210 pupils give all the oppor- 
tunities for missionary work that can be made 
use of. The good we are able to accomplish 
is limited only by our capacity for doing 
good." 

November 6th, 1909, the twenty-fifth anni- 
versary of the opening of this school, was 
marked by the alumni providing two hundred 
yen ($100) as a beginning towards a gym- 
nasium. Subsequently this amount was 
doubled and another five hundred yen con- 
tributed by the teachers, pupils and friends. 
The building was completed the following 
year and proved " a boon which seems to grow 
as time passes." 

The room for the library was also enlarged 
and improved, through the generous gift of 
the N.B. and P.E.I. Branch as a memorial 
of one who for twenty years had thought and 
toiled as president or corresponding-secretary 
in the interests of the Society — Miss Frances 
E. Palmer, St. John, KB. 

A very gratifying feature of the life in our 
boarding schools is the Christian atmosphere, 
the awakening of personal responsibility, the 
stimulus to effort for others. This was evi- 
denced by " two or three of the young helpers 
in children's meetings expressing the wish to 
do something for the little girls who were 
leaving their classes on Sunday because they 



106 



Tokyo 



were beginning to work in factories, and so 
were busy then as on other days. It was 
decided to open a little night school for such 
girls in the kindergarten room ( Juban) three 
evenings in the week. There was no lack of 
volunteer teachers, and fourteen little girls 
availed themselves of the opportunity to learn 
a little reading, writing, arithmetic, sewing 
and the Bible. One child walks fully three 
miles to this class after her long day's work, 
showing a very real appreciation of the chance 
given her." 

Good work has been done by the King's 
Daughters, Temperance and Literary Socie- 
ties. These are under the direct control of 
the girls themselves, with some advice from 
the teachers. Their training in planning and 
conducting religious and business meetings is 
a valuable part of their education, while their 
contributions have been a help to the Famine 
Relief Fund in China, the Leper Hospital 
and the Blind Asylum. Six of the students 
are looking forward to becoming Bible- 
women. With some this decision means the 
giving up of former ambitions, with others 
the overcoming of strong prejudice in their 
homes. Throughout the year was felt the 
helpful influence of the special meetings con- 
ducted by Mr. Wilkes in the early part of the 
session, and the quiet daily work and prayer 
of the Christian girls and teachers was not 
without fruit. 



King's 
Daughters, 
Temper- 
ance and 
Literary 
Societies. 



107 



Japan 



School- 
Room Pro- 
vided by 
Factory 
Proprietor. 



Factory 
Conditions. 



A pleasing but very uncommon evidence of 
care for the operatives by the proprietor 
appears in a calico factory where " a school- 
room has been built and a teacher engaged 
who holds school three times a day ; but even 
so, he only reaches three hundred of the three 
thousand girls who spend their lives in the 
factory. Here, as well as in another, we are 
now giving direct Bible talks, also in a 
hospital in connection with this factory. 
Recently one of the nurses came and asked 
for a Bible." 

Miss Allen writes : 

" About seven years ago, Miss Howie suc- 
ceeded in obtaining permission to hold a meet- 
ing twice a month in one of the many large 
factories in Kameido, a suburb of Tokyo. 
It is a factory employing about 2,700 girls. 
There are usually two or three hundred of 
them at our meeting, but as many come only 
once or twice out of curiosity," and as the 
employees change so frequently, our talks 
have to be rather a series of beginnings than 
a connected and progressive teaching of the 
truths of Christianity. Still there are always 
some who show real interest and who are 
present whenever possible. 

" Most of the girls come from distant parts 
of Japan and live in the factory dormitories, 
which, while better than those of many other 
factories, are still far from being either 

108 



Tokyo 

hygienic or inviting. The girls work on the 
night and on the day shifts alternately, the 
change being made every seven or eight days 
when the machinery stops for twelve hours, 
giving the workers twenty-four hours' rest 
instead of twelve. This extra time the girls 
are free to employ as they wish, there being 
no restriction to their going where they 
please, provided they return to the factory 
by ten at night. This arrangement certainly 
does not give any too much time for rest and 
recreation, but it does unfortunately give an 
opportunity for the girls to spend their time 
in ways that are evil. 

M No one can wonder at their natural and 
innocent desire for a little amusement after 
days of a weary and monotonous round of 
work, but their lack of wisdom and experi- 
ence, as well as their lack of money to enable 
them to go to respectable places of entertain- 
ment, often lead them to the worst places. 
Consequently, we were very much pleased 
last winter when several of the girls came 
all the way to the school — a trip of nearly 
two hours on the electric car — with the 
request that we tell them something more 
about Christianity. It was time for them to 
return before they had heard half of what 
they wanted to listen to, or we to tell, but 
they went away very happy, each carrying a 
New Testament and a number of very easy 
tracts and booklets. 

109 



Japan 



House 
Secured as 
a Social 
Centre. 



" Since then, whenever we have gone to the 
factory to hold our meeting we have taken 
special literature for these girls, and as they 
obtained permission to follow us into the fac- 
tory hospital where we have a little meeting 
for the nurses, they heard two talks instead of 
one. Still this did not give us an opportunity 
to speak to them personally, and so arose the 
plan to rent a little house in the neighborhood 
to which they could come on their holidays. 

" The factory managers are very polite and 
friendly, but they have made it clear that any 
personal and direct appeal to their employees 
would result in having our meetings stopped, 
though they have no objection to our teaching 
the girls hymns and telling them Bible stories. 
This attitude arises not so much from any 
objection to Christianity as from the fear 
that if a report spreads that they are making 
Christians of their employees, parents will 
send their daughters to work in other fac- 
tories. But they have no objection to the 
girls coming to our house for Christian teach- 
ing, as the responsibility then rests upon the 
girl and not upon themselves. 

" After some searching we found a suitable 
house and a middle-aged Christian woman to 
look after it and take care of the two little 
daughters of the Bible-woman living there. 
The latter works in connection with the 
Shitaya church, so is out most of the time, 
but she is at home in the evenings and on cer- 



110 



Tokyo 

taill afternoons, while Hibi San and I are 
there on the days when girls we know are 
free to come. 

" I wish the people who supplied the money 
for the rent and furnishing of the house could 
have seen the delight of those specially inter- 
ested girls I mentioned, when we told them 
where the house was and that they might 
come to it any time. They have not yet 
missed coming whenever they were free to 
do so, and are beginning to bring their 
friends. 

" The house is a small one, but is large 
enough for our purpose. Downstairs, in addi- 
tion to a small hall and a tiny kitchen, where 
you can reach any article without moving 
from the centre, there are two rooms nine feet 
by twelve, which can be thrown into one. 
Here the Bible-woman, the caretaker and the 
two little ones live, and here we hold a weekly 
meeting for children. The twelve-by-twelve 
upstairs room is especially for the factory 
girls. In it there is a little bookcase contain- 
ing Bibles and tracts, which we give them, 
and easy stories which we lend them, and are 
delighted to see them take, for the lowest 
class of novels by Japanese /writers and trans- 
lations of the scum of western literature are 
only too cheap and plentiful. 

" We also keep sewing materials, so that 
any girl who has a dress to make over can 
bring it with her. Perry pictures do much 

111 



Japan 

to make the room attractive and to furnish a 
starting-point for conversation leading to the 
great central theme. As we have had the 
house for only six weeks, it is too soon to 
estimate the worth of our venture, but I feel 
sure it will be a good investment of time and 
money. Not that so many girls have come 
yet, but those who have been there once return 
on every possible opportunity, eager to hear 
more of Christianity. 

" I am afraid in the limits of a letter to 
attempt to touch upon the problem of factory 
work generally. The more one looks into it 
and thinks about it, the more one realizes how 
terrible are the conditions. But they are con- 
ditions that in some other countries have been, 
if not made perfect, at least vastly improved, 
and there is no reason why the same should 
not be true of Japan. But this will never 
be until the Japanese people themselves begin 
to realize the sufferings and needs of factory 
employees. With this thought in mind, the 
1 house-warming ' we planned when we were 
settled was made to include not only those 
from the school already interested, but some 
of the church ladies who should be inter- 
ested." 

Teaching Wayside teaching is also blessed, as in the 

days of the Saviour, for it is His truth that 
brings light and joy. " Here is a little group 
of women in one of the side streets who, while 

112 



Tokyo 



they smoke their pipes and drink their tea, 
listen with tears in their eyes to the Gospel 
message. Their hostess, who had found her 
way into one of our street Sunday-school 
meetings, heing attracted by the singing, had 
called her neighbors together and sent for us 
to come and tell them more of those wonderful 
words of life." 

To a discouraged invalid was brought " the 
sure word of comfort, and one glance at her 
happy face is sufficient to assure one that the 
Lord has fully compensated her for all her 
losses." 

Others were led to feel their responsibility 
for those dependent upon them, whether in 
the home or in sewing schools, and little meet- 
ings were arranged for these. The church 
services showed the effect of the women 
undertaking to bring their neighbors, and 
the building of the new Sunday school and 
parsonage in Azabu became a great quickener 
of their generosity and Christian activity. 
At the Ueno Exhibition many assisted the 
Bible-women and the missionaries, " some 
standing for hours in front of the Gospel Hall 
inviting people to enter, and there was simply 
no limit to tract distribution." 

In 1914 Miss Blackmore writes concerning 
the orphanage in Juban : " Our little Home 
has passed its twentieth birthday. On that 
occasion one of the ■ grown-up children ' said, 
'When mother died eighteen years ago, grand- 



Orphanage. 

Rescued 

Lives. 



8 



113 



Japan 



25th Anni- 
versary of 
Honored 
Mission- 
aries. 



Kinder- 
garten in 
Azabu. 



mother struggled to keep us "respectable," but 
our invalid father decided to sell my sister 
and me (aged four and six) into " the evil 
business." God saved us from that horrible 
fate through Christian women of Canada who 
stretched kind hands across the sea to help us. 
Now we both have happy Christian homes of 
our own. but we never forget what we might 
have been, and shall teach our children to 
thank God and the women of Canada.' It 
was beautiful to the eyes of those who have 
watched her development to see, at our last 
baptismal service, this young mother present 
her boy to the Lord — mother and child the 
embodiment of joyous, vigorous life. They 
are a type of the work of the twenty years." 

This same year, 1914, marked the twenty- 
fifth anniversary of the arrival in Japan of 
three of our most valuable and honored mis- 
sionaries. Misses Hargrave, Elackmore and 
Hart, and the event was delightfully remem- 
bered at the annual meeting of the Council. 

For some time it has been felt that there 
was " a missing link " in our educational 
work in Tokyo, a foundation one for the fol- 
lowing generation, so it was with great joy 
when " a small but successful " kindergarten 
was established. " exactly meeting our pur- 
pose, namely, bringing under our care the 
children of our graduates, the little brothers 
and sisters of the present pupils and a few 
children in the immediate neighborhood.'' 



114 



Tokyo 



The cost ($440) was met by the graduates 
and students, who had also responded gener- 
ously to many regular and special requests, 
their work and voluntary gifts amounting in 
the year to $220. Among the objects were 
the famine relief fund, the new church, Sun- 
day school and parsonage, special evangelistic 
work, and sending delegates to the Y.W.C.A. 
Summer Conference. " Although from the 
early years the King's "Daughters Society had 
taken the leading part in the religious work 
of the school, from time to time the advis- 
abilitv of disbanding and organizing a 
Y.W.C.A. had been discussed." In 1915 
this action was taken " in the hope that the 
girls' outlook and sympathies might be broad- 
ened by bringing them in touch with the 
wider student movement." 

In the minutes of the Japan Council, 1913, 
we find this record : " The trustees of the 
Azabu church having offered part of the 
church lot for sale, resolved, that the imme- 
diate purchase of the one hundred tsubo 
adjoining the school property be authorized." 
This additional strip of land was of great 
advantage, and 1916 finds a three-storey 
extension being erected to provide necessary 
class rooms, science room, etc. 

For some years it has been apparent to the 
missionaries of several denominations that 
there was urgent need for an advanced course 
of education under Christian influence. To 



Y.W.C.A. 
Formed. 



Union 
Christian 
College for 
Women. 



115 



Japan 

provide this was too great an undertaking for 
any one Board, but by combining forces a 
Fnion Christian College for women, well 
equipped and efficiently conducted, might be 
established, thus bringing great benefit to the 
graduates of the various mission schools. 

Much time and close thought have been 
given by the Promoting Committee, on which 
Hon. Soroku Ebara has been appointed our 
Japanese representative, an honor to our 
Canadian Church. 

A suggested basis has been submitted to the 
Boards who propose to unite, and high hopes 
are entertained for the not too distant realiza- 
tion of this statesmanlike vision. 

At a Conference held in New York, June 
27th. 1016, a " Committee of Co-operation " 
of the "Woman's Christian College of Japan 
was organized, representing the following 
Boards : American Baptist Woman's Foreign 
Missionary Society ; Board of Foreign Mis- 
sions, Presbyterian Church in U. S. A. : 
Woman's Foreign Missionary Society of the 
Methodist Episcopal Church ; Board of For- 
eign Missions of the Methodist Episcopal 
Churoh ; Woman's Foreign Missionary Soci- 
ety of the "Reformed Church in America: 
Woman's Missionary Society of the Meth- 
odist Church. Canada. 



116 



CHAPTER XL 



SHIZUOKA. 



ONE of the closing paragraphs in the 
second volume of the " Story of the 
Years " concerning Shizuoka (page 51) gives 
a touching little reference to the war between 
Japan and Russia, 1904-5. 

The following year Miss Cunningham Red Cross 
writes : w After the war was concluded last J™Jjl 
fall, and the troops began to arrive from Man- 
churia, the members of the Red Cross Volun- 
teer Nurses' Association were divided into six 
classes, each class to take its turn in meeting 
trains and serving tea to the soldiers. For 
nearly six months from four to eight trains 
passed daily, and as they stopped from thirty 
to forty minutes, many of the Red Cross 
ladies took their lunch and remained at the 
station the greater part of the day. Miss 
Tweedie and I went as often as possible and 
became very friendly with the members of 
our class. Two years of constant thought and 
work for the soldiers — meeting trains, visit- 
ing and providing entertainment for wounded 
soldiers, etc. — had given many women an 
interest outside of their homes, and when the 
war was ended all were not content to go back 
to the monotonous life of former years. One 

117 



Japan 



Miss Cun- 
ningham's 
Return to 
Canada. 



Memorial 
Service. 



Abiding 
Fruit. 



lady expressed a wish to learn English ; other 
requests quickly followed, and for several 
weeks Miss Veazey had a class of thirteen 
ladies, among them the wife of the governor." 

The most marked event of 1906-7, bringing 
a touch of sadness to Shizuoka school life, was 
the return to Canada of Miss Cunningham 
after her third term of service. From the open- 
ing of this our second station she had watched 
its development, most of which had been 
under her own influence and effort, and she 
could rejoice in a school of seventy-one, with 
a staff of two foreigners, eight Japanese teach- 
ers (five being Christians), a kindergarten of 
sixty, besides the English class of twenty 
Eed Cross ladies. 

Evidencing the deep impression made by 
Miss Cunningham during her fifteen years 
in Japan was the touching memorial service 
held in the church at Shizuoka on receiving 
word of her passing to the better land at Sault 
Ste. Marie, Ont, April 22nd, 1916. About 
forty of the former graduates were present, 
some from near-by towns. Later in the day 
they had a social gathering in the school to 
talk over the early days, and as they separ- 
ated many gave expression to resolves for 
more unselfish living as the result of the influ- 
ence recalled of their honored teacher. 

" Be not weary in well-doing, for in due 
season ye shall reap if ye faint not." This is 
exemplified in the record of Miss Crombie in 



118 



JmSSUBm 


WKkt 


WffU 


-v% 


m>w 


r fl pnw ^ 


' M [ I.I 1 if 

i 


ggMjJWP^il 





HOME AND BOARDING SCHOOL 
'Shizuoka. Japan 




PRIMARY BUILDING 
Shizuoka. Japan 



Shizuoka 

connection with the evangelistic work. " It 
was very gratifying to find active Christians 
who had been members of the church for 
twenty years or more, to see them taking a 
lively interest in temperance work, and the 
women of the church conducting a woman's 
meeting once a month, all the members taking 
their turn in sharing the responsibility, and 
to find homes where both parents and all the 
children are members of the church. These 
and other visible results are the fruits of past 
labors." 

In one town a fortnightly meeting was held 
in the home of one of the principal ladies, 
who was always inviting the women and keep- 
ing them stirred up. Formerly, in the busy 
tea season, these meetings were closed, but 
during one summer at least it was decided 
this should not be done, as it would be very 
" lonesome " without them. 

Always and in all the stations our mission- Tcmper- 
aries have been earnest pioneers in the cause 
of temperance. One of the numerous forms 
of effort was the publication of The Chil- 
dren s Herald, which, under the able man- 
agement of Mrs. Pinsent and her Japanese 
assistant, had a circulation in 1908 of 6,500 
copies monthly. The following year the edit- 
ing of this paper was passed over to the 
department of the World's W.C.T.U. in 
Tokyo, as there was now a "Y " missionary 
in residence there. A Temperance Legion 

119 



ance. 



ment. 



Japan 

was formed among the boys who considered 
themselves too big for Sunday school. 
Primary October, 1909, the twentieth anniversary 

Depart- f the foundation of our work in Shizuoka, 

brought special rejoicing through the opening 
of the new building for the long-desired 
Primary Department, thus making provision 
for a child to enter the kindergarten and pro- 
ceed through the various grades up to gradua- 
tion, spending ten or twelve years under 
Christian instruction. 

The crowning joy of the following year 
came with the decision, during the last three 
months, of thirteen of the students to give 
themselves to Christ. There was also great 
satisfaction in being able to open in October, 
1910, a kindergarten class in Tenima Cho, a 
very poor district about a mile from our 
school. This resulted in a nourishing Sun- 
day school of nearly one hundred children 
and a well-attended Mothers' Meeting. The 
room for this Christian work had been sup- 
plied by five young men of the church, but 
being small and in a very noisy place, could 
not be used permanently. Miss De Wolfe 
and her Japanese helpers met once a week to 
pray about this and other things. Unknown 
to them the young men also met for prayer, 
and in a wonderful way a most suitable piece 
of land (Futaba) was secured by the latter 
and a building planned to accommodate fifty 
children and carry on other settlement work 

120 



matsu. 



Shizuoka 

This property was purchased and fenced by *Jjjj|j£ 
the W.M.S. in 1915, the young men who had 
owned it desiring to be relieved. Marked 
improvement in the neighborhood was mani- 
fested from this little centre, which enrolled 
eighty-eight little pupils in 1915. In addi- 
tion we have two other kindergartens in the 
city, one (Shizuhata) in connection with the 
large Orphanage maintained by the General 
Board and the one (Eiwa) attached to our 
Boarding School. 

Miss Crombie reports in 1911-12 the open- ™*™*' 
ing of women's meetings in eight new places, 
with a wonderful readiness to hear the Gos- 
pel, especially in the Hamamatsu district 
(about three hours by train west of Shizu- 
oka). '• On an average," Miss Crombie says, 
" I have made a trip in this direction once a 
month, taking two or more meetings in dif- 
ferent places each time, with audiences vary- 
ing from fifty to one hundred and eighty, 
mostly women. The Japanese pastor says 
that the women in his church have all been 
brought in by our work. They invariably 
make the start in a women's meeting. Hun- 
dreds have heard the Gospel for the first time 
and the Christians have been encouraged to 
work with greater faith and earnestness. The 
women of Kega, assuming responsibility 
toward the neighboring villages, have gone, in 
company, to each new meeting, riding several 
hours in the stage coach, even through the 

121 



Japan 



Govern- 
ment 
Recog- 
nition. 



rain and late at night. The zeal of the new 
places is also having a reflex influence on the 
older ones." 

It has been a great disappointment that 
through lack of workers the eager desire to 
have Hamamatsu occupied as another centre 
by our Canadian women missionaries has as 
yet been unfulfilled. 

For some time our school in Shizuoka had 
desired Government recognition, and an 
application was made to the Education 
Department. By complying with specified 
regulations (which do not interfere in any 
way with the teaching of Christianity), pri- 
vate schools may obtain certain privileges for 
their graduates, who, in addition to some 
minor advantages, can enter without exam- 
ination into the Normal Schools and are 
eligible for the entrance examination into the 
Higher Normal School. This long-waited- 
for " Government Recognition," granted in 
December, 1913, added much joy to the 
Christmas celebration of that year, and was 
a^ great satisfaction to the Principal, Miss 
Veazey, who through so many years has with 
such grace and ability watched over the inter- 
ests of this school. Through this measure 
" entrance was secured for one of our bright- 
est graduates into the Provincial Normal 
School, where she can receive the regular 
three-year diploma at the end of one year and 
so return in the spring as a primary teacher." 

122 



Shizuoka 

The year 1914-15 claims attention in two 
respects: first as presenting from the Pri- 
mary Department its first class of graduates, 
fourteen in number, of whom eight remained 
for academic work; and second, in securing 
a fine Christian teacher of experience as 
head of this important branch. 

As a result of the general evangelistic 
effort of this year special openings were 
afforded for work among High School girls 
through Bible study classes, the distribution 
of Christian literature, regular hospital visit- 
ing, addresses in factories, etc., fourteen new 
weekly and several monthly meetings having 
been started. 



123 



CHAPTER XII. 



New 
School 
Building, 
1907. 



Well and 

Electric 

Light. 



KOFU. 

JANUARY 19th, 1907, witnessed the 
formal opening of the long-anticipated 
new home for our school in its fine elevated 
position on the side of a high hill overlooking 
the city, with its magnificent inspiring views. 

The structure, though not very artistic, is 
conveniently arranged and well planned to 
secure the utmost of sunshine and good air. 

Many new furnishings, though of the sim- 
plest kind, had to be provided, and for these 
the King's Daughters Society through their 
industry contributed ninety-three yen. Nat- 
urally the grounds required much attention, 
and it is pleasing to note that the first trees 
or shrubs planted were the gift of that year's 
graduates. 

Digging a well was the next great under- 
taking. " Begun in the fall, completion was 
promised before the year closed. After dig- 
ging, as required by contract, desirable water 
was not forthcoming. Water we must have/' 
writes Miss Robertson. " Should fire occur 
we are in jeopardy. Assured that a few more 
feet of digging would strike the water vein 
in the rock below, we went into a day com- 

124 




I ■■■ 



HOME AND BOARDING SCHOOL 

Kofu. Japan 







SHIRITSA YAMANASHI CARTMELL JOJIKU 
Evangelistic centre. >Kofu,«Japan 



Kofu 

pact. Spring (1908) was here before the 
well was finished, but the memory of weary 
watching, slow labor and daily anxiety over 
accumulating expense was partially obliter- 
ated by the joy of beholding the rushing foun- 
tain from beneath fill the well to the brim, 
giving us over sixty feet of water." May we 
not look upon this as a parable and prophecy 
of the spiritual fountain springing up into 
everlasting life from the careful planning 
and plodding, the patient teaching, the gifts 
and prayers both there and here in the home- 
land I The Divine Spirit alone can give the 
water of life, but we must dig the well. 

The next improvement was the installation 
of electric light throughout the building, 
bringing a sense of relief and security. 

The great event of the year 1911 to all Gym- 
interested in the external welfare of the nasium. 
school was the building of the gymnasium, 
" a monument to the patient efforts of a 
faithful few of the Alumnae," supplemented 
and its completion hastened by a generous 
donation from the Board. Its advantages 
were much appreciated, especially during the 
rainy season, but after serving a useful pur- 
pose for four years this one-storey building 
was reconstructed in 1915 on a new model, 
supplying a fine large class room in addition 
to a well-equipped science room in the second 
storey. 

125 



Japan 

rh NcV vi Showing how the active interest of the stu- 

dents is not limited to their school, but is 
linked to the general work of the mission, an 
extract may be taken from Miss Strothard's 
letter, appearing May, 1916 : " For some time 
the missionary workers and the Japanese 
Christians in Kofu have been looking for- 
ward to and working for a new church, the 
congregation having quite outgrown the orig- 
inal structure. All our Christian community 
have been seeking to do their share in helping 
to meet the expense involved. In the Gov- 
ernment schools it is customary to take the 
graduating class on a trip to some place of 
historic interest, or to some large commercial 
enterprise, a visit to which would be of edu- 
cational value to the students, and for the 
past two or three years the girls of our grad- 
uating class have been taken on similar 
excursions. Accordingly plans were being 
made for the trip, when the girls of their 
own accord came to the Principal, Miss Rob- 
ertson, and said that if she would allow them 
to take a walking trip over the mountains to 
the Mitake Falls, to visit the famous old 
temple there, they would give up their other 
trip and appropriate the money they would 
have thus spent towards the building fund of 
the new church. This proposition, coming 
voluntarily, delighted Miss Robertson, and of 
course she quickly consented. At the Christ- 
mas entertainment the pupils had thirty-five 

126 



Kofu 



yen to offer as their first contribution to the 
church fund." 

The students have many opportunities of 
" showing sympathy. Every week or so some 
of the girls take a little rice to a poor family, 
some flowers to an invalid or a little money to 
some unfortunate. On Flower Sunday, after 
distributing flowers in the hospitals, each one 
had an incident to relate which showed how 
her heart had been touched with the sight of 
suffering." 

Every year there are decisions for Christ, 
and those who reach graduation are almost 
without exception His confessed followers. 
This is true of all our schools. Many pass 
on to higher training with the avowed pur- 
pose of obtaining greater efficiency in Chris- 
tian service. They are sent out with the 
prayer that their influence may work as 
leaven in the centres where they may live, 
that they may stand true to their Master, and 
that their spiritual life may be saved from 
being smothered by the materialistic and 
degrading influences about them. 

In no province has what is specifically 
termed the evangelistic work been more 
extensively or successfully developed than in 
Yamanashi, of which Kofu is the chief city, 
situated on a plain surrounded by lofty moun- 
tains, having many villages and towns scat- 
tered through the district, some in places diffi- 
cult of access and only in recent years brought 

127 



Decisions 
for Christ. 



Evange- 
listic 
Work. 



Kofu 

into closer communication in certain direc- 
tions by the introduction of the railway. 
Travel by jinrikisha, basha or kago is still 
the weary method on some roads, but our 
ladies and the Bible-women feel well re- 
warded as from month to month they note 
the welcome given to the message, the 
enlarged intelligence and devotion of the 
women as they grasp Bible truth, and the 
bright, responsive faces of the children, who 
eagerly attempt, and ultimately learn, to sing 
the songs of Zion and memorize Scripture 
verses. 

Miss Alcorn, ably seconded at different 
periods by Miss Tweedie and Miss Killam, 
B.A., has organized and carried out a wide 
itinerary with numerous meetings and syste- 
matic visiting, which has brought the Gospel 
to many a secluded hamlet, purifying and 
enriching individual lives, and through them 
families otherwise unreached. 

Very careful instruction is regularly given 
to Bible-women and senior students who take 
part in these evangelistic efforts. 

Miss Alcorn writes in 1913 : " Our Yaman- 
ashi Ken Bible-women deserve a place of 
honor among the names of those who are 
faithful. 

"We are now seeing the result of what Bible- 
years of training can do for our workers. womcn * 
Mrs. Yoshii — naturally reticent — after thir- 
teen years of service has found herself. Her 

9 129 



Japan 

fear in entering new homes or going to new 
places seems lost in her zeal for her work." 

The members and friends of our Kofu 
church recently celebrated the thirtieth anni- 
versary of Mrs. Wadda's spiritual birthday. 
For twenty-two years she has been associated 
with us. Very touching was the story she 
told of seeking and finding salvation in the 
days when it was not easy to become a Chris- 
tian. Her testimony to the keeping power of 
God could not but inspire a deeper faith in 
the hearts of all who heard her. 

Another interesting gathering in our church 
was a surprise party for Watanabe San. For 
fifteen years she has given herself freely to 
the uplift of the people of our province. 
Representative men came from far and near 
to testify to her worth, and numerous inci- 
dents were given of changed lives and ideals 
because of her faithful efforts. 

Surely the lives of these three good women 
will inspire our Christian students to lose 
themselves in loving service for others. !N"ever 
before have homes opened and hearts re- 
sponded so readily to Christian teaching. 
This came in answer to definite, persistent 
prayer. It pays to work long and patiently 
with souls. Christ's limit of time is " until 
ye find." The visit once in two or three weeks 
seems little, but by keeping our people " mov- 
ing along the way of Jesus, like a river, the 
very motion is a cleansing process." 

130 



Kofu 

As showing the estimate in which Chris- 
tian literature is held by our missionaries, 
and as a sample of its use, we insert Miss 
Alcorn's report for 1908-9: 

" Evangelistic. — In summing up the work Literature* 
of the year we find a large expenditure for 
literature in our province. The ordering and 
distributing of tracts and papers is no hap- 
hazard work. It takes careful thought and 
planning. Before ordering, sample tracts are 
read, to be sure for what department of our 
work we need them. What would help a 
factory girl would not he suitable for our 
women's meetings. What we give at our 
women's meetings is not what we plan for the 
girls in the sewing schools. Then there must 
be a tract for free distribution in the homes. 
Twice this year we have placed something to 
read in every home in the vicinity of our 
school. In other districts this has also been 
done. As we travel through our province 
there is abundant opportunity for scattering 
helpful thoughts to those whom we only meet 
in passing. 

" We have a good ' lending library,' and 
are often delighted at the interest shown in 
helpful books by many of the women. 
Twenty-five of < The Story of My Life '— 
Helen Keller — have been distributed through 
the province. 

131 



Japan 

" Quite a number of our women have this 
year subscribed for magazines. 

" The l Daily Bible Readings ' are in every 
home where we are seeking to awaken interest 
in a daily study of the' Word. 

" We meet one thousand women in our 
regular work every month. At our children's 
meetings in the country we have an aggre- 
gate attendance of six hundred. In our Kofu 
children's meetings we have an aggregate 
attendance of one thousand. We take nine 
hundred papers a month for the children, 
eight hundred for the women, sewing girls 
and factories. 

" Once the largest factory in our province 
opened its doors, and thirteen hundred women 
and girls had permission to hear a fifteen- 
minute talk from Miss Strout, our W.C.T.U. 
missionary. Because of there being no suit- 
able place where all could gather, only five 
hundred were able to hear. The same day the 
principal of a sewing school of one hundred 
and fifty girls allowed us to speak to her girls. 
In February, at a large special meeting in our 
Kofu church, ninety of the best women of 
our city came to hear a lecture on ' The Mis- 
sion of Women.' On such occasions as these 
three cited we plan specially to give each one 
a further message by putting into her hand 
something she can read afterwards and then 
pass on to her friends. 

132 



Kofu 

" As the years pass by, the preparing and 
carrying of these bundles of tracts and papers 
does not become monotonous. On the con- 
trary, there is a growing interest in the great 
possibilities of this department of our work, 
for may it not be the time when a message 
will touch the keynote of some life and there 
will be a response, a seeking for God. 

" Grateful for the privilege of service, we 
close our work with the same prayer offered 
last year, ' Lord, if we may, we'll serve 
another day.' " 

The following year shows further exten- 
sion ,n j 

" Evangelistic. — In the north-western part Hungry 
of the Province, new work has been opened Hearts - 
during the year. In February, while having 
a children's meeting at Hinoharu village, we 
met a man from Oizumi, who gave us a press- 
ing invitation to visit his village. We went 
in March and had over two hundred women 
at our afternoon meeting. At six o'clock we 
had a large children's meeting, and from 
seven a meeting of over two hundred and fifty 
men and women, which lasted until after 
eleven o'clock. These were the first Christian 
services ever held in this village. 

" About two miles from this place is a vil- 
lage called Kabuto, where we were invited to 
speak at a large sewing school of eighty 
pupils. We could not find time to go until 

133 



Japan 

April, and when we did go we were sorry to 
find that about half the girls had already left. 
We had a good meeting with the forty present, 
and at the close every girl in the school and 
the teacher also expressed their willingness 
to accept salvation through faith in Christ. 
Thirty-four of the girls bought Bibles and 
promised to read them. We had another 
meeting with them before the school closed 
for the summer, and the joy of hearing from 
the teacher herself that she had accepted 
Christ at our first meeting, and since then 
her heart had been filled with peace. She 
has promised to use the daily Bible readings 
and have the girls take a little time every day 
for Bible reading when the school opens again 
in the autumn. 
Doors " Our prayers for entrance to factories 

Opened. have surely been answered beyond what we 
are able to receive. Ten additional factories 
have been entered, making twenty, in which 
we may have meetings once or twice a month. 
" It may be interesting to know that on one 
occasion we were invited to stay over night 
at the Buddhist temple of this place, and 
immediately after a late supper, our hostess, 
who had charge of the temple, invited her 
neighbors in for a meeting, which continued 
until after midnight. 
Faithful " In this same district at Hinoharu station 

Living. new WO rk has developed during the year. 

Two years ago a Christian woman came here 

134 



Kofu 

to live, and like the seed planted in good 
ground has been bearing fruit abundantly. 
Her husband is in the railway service, and 
her life amongst the railway men and others 
has had a wonderful influence. Several have 
confessed faith in Christ and are living new 
lives. We have a most interesting meeting 
for men and women every two weeks in her 
house. Her home is always open to us, 
and her unbounded hospitality is a great 
comfort." 

During the years following the removal of 
our headquarters in Kofu to the fine site on 
the hillside it had become increasingly appar- 
ent that while admirable for a school and a 
home, it was not advantageous as a centre for 
work among the women and children of the 
city. 

After considerable searching and negotia- Down 
tion a very desirable lot was secured not far Town 
from our former location and convenient to 
the church. Plans were carefully studied 
and a most suitable building erected (1914- 
1915), making provision for a kindergarten, 
a sewing school, mothers' meetings, a hostel 
for a dozen students, and a residence for 
the Bible-women and kindergarten teachers, 
besides the two or more missionaries in 
charge. In honor of their former co-worker, 
the Council adopted as a name for this 
new school, " Shiritza Yamanashi Cartmell 
Jojikn." 

185 



Japan 

Miss Alcorn writes : H Our sewing school 
opened in April. Many have shown their 
appreciation of this Christian home, the latest 
gift of our loyal workers in Canada. Mes- 
sages have come to us from parents who are 
grateful for a place provided in our own 
province where the daughters may learn the 
arts of home-making. In our first class of 
thirty-two we have ten graduates from the 
Government School for Girls and four from 
our own. The second class are all graduates 
of the Higher Primary School. As these 
girls daily associate with the Bible-women 
and kindergarten teachers, there cannot but 
come to them higher ideals which will result 
in a desire to know the source of life that 
makes us new women in Christ Jesus." 

Miss Hargrave says : " In January kinder- 
garten teachers, children, parents and friends 
rejoiced with us as we took possession of the 
classrooms in the new building. It was a 
never-to-be-forgotten occasion, and it was an 
inspiration to see the pride and pleasure on 
the faces of all who came under our roof, 
especially as we saw the promise of increased 
numbers and therefore a wider circle of 
opportunity." 



186 



CHAPTER XIII. 

KANAZAWA. 

TURNING from our work in the eastern 
coast cities of Tokyo and Shizuoka and 
from inland Kofu, we find our fourth station 
in Kanazawa, near the sea on the north-west 
coast of Japan. This is a large city and pos- 
sesses the third finest park in the Empire, a 
place of beauty and refreshment. 

Here our activities have been on a some- 
what different line, not having a boarding- 
school as a centre, owing to that need being 
met, at least in part, by the American 
Presbyterian Board. 

Our efforts have largely been in carrying 
on various day and night classes — industrial 
(embroidery) sewing, cooking, kindergarten, 
English, Bible study, Sunday schools, and 
numerous meetings for women and children 
involving much visiting — all aiming at lead- 
ing to Christ, to the building up of His 
Church in piety and intelligence, and to 
improvement in the conditions of the people, 
the majority of whom are poor. 

Property has been purchased in three sec- 
tions of the city, buildings renovated and 
enlarged or new ones erected. 

The situation of our home and headquar- New Site 
ters was central and the site valuable, though * n< ? 
the buildings were not adequate to the needs m mgs ' 

137 



Japan 

of the work, with its growing opportunities. 
For some years occasional intimations had 
been heard that the city, whose public offices 
were adjacent, greatly desired our property, 
and after some very courteous and satisfac- 
tory negotiations an exchange was made in 
1913 whereby a fine lot in a desirable locality 
became ours, with the privilege of remaining 
in our old quarters for a year while a new 
building was being erected. 

Miss Jost, in writing of this transaction, 
says : " The city has given us such a fine site in 
what we think will prove a better centre for 
our work that our regret at leaving 75 Hiro- 
saka-dori is lost in the joy of possessing 14 
Shiritarezaka-dori." She adds: " We would 
like to record our sense of gratitude that we 
have Miss Hargrave with us for the superin- 
tendence of building operations ; ' and still our 
wonder grows that one small head can carry 
all she knows' of building. We are sure 
there will be few better built houses in Japan 
than ' Strachan Hall ' and i Herbie Bellamy 
Home.' " 
Miss The Society is to be congratulated that not 

Hargrave on jy ^ n pl ann i n g Du t i n practical supervision 
Builder. of the erection of these buildings Miss Har- 
grave, our secretary-treasurer, has rendered 
such efficient service, giving unlimited time, 
thought and patience, attending to the small- 
est details, and making sure that foundations 

188 



Kanazawa 

especially should be proof against moisture, 
white ants, and all other intruders. In all 
the stations she has been indefatigable in her 
search for these insidious, almost invisible, 
white pests which, unperceived, carry on their 
destructive work wherever moist wood can be 
entered. 

June 30th, 1913, was the day chosen for 
the laying of the corner-stone, and we cannot 
do better than insert Miss Armstrong's vivid 
account of this interesting event: 

" At the hour appointed for the ceremony 
we wended our way along that busy thorough- 
fare for students, Hirosaka-dori, as far as 
the Park; then, skirting the picturesque 
remains of the old castle perched high up 
on the stone wall which now surrounds the 
barracks, turned to the left into the street 
on which our new building is to stand, Shiri- 
tarezaka-dori. Passing the new court-house, 
an imposing red-brick building, the carpen- 
ter's sheds and generally busy aspect of the 
adjoining place showed us that we had 
reached our destination. 

"In spite of threatening skies the little 
groups of men and women gathered there for 
the occasion were in gala attire, excepting, 
that is, the workmen and workwomen, whose 
costume is beyond my powers of description. 

" But the most attractive thing on the 
grounds was not the interesting-looking work- 

139 



Japan 

men, nor the well-dressed Christian men and 
women, nor the foreigners in white frocks, 
but the foundation. 

" Deep and broad, strong and solid it stands 
there, a monument to the wisdom and ability 
of the presiding genius, Miss Hargrave ; and 
indeed it seemed to invite inspection and criti- 
cism. Inspection it received, too, of the 
closest kind, but none could criticize, or do 
aught else than heap encomiums on the head 
of the aforementioned lady. 

" The taking of a photograph was, of 
course- the first item on the programme, and 
it bid fair to be the only item, from the 
length of time required in the process. How- 
ever, it was over at last. 
Ceremony " The next thing was the laying of the 

of Corner- corner-stone ; but owing to the absence, 
Stone. through unexpected illness, of Rev. J. W. 

Saunby, who was to have read the accom- 
panying service, the ceremony was omitted, 
and the workmen and visitors gathered in the 
long sheds, where impromptu benches were 
made to accommodate us. 

" Hymn sheets were passed around, and the 
company joined in singing the abbreviated 
story of the prodigal son to the tune ' Imayo,' 
so popular with our Japanese friends. Prayer 
by Mr. Nomura, one of our Japanese co- 
workers, was followed by a short address from 
Miss Jost. 

140 



Kanazawa 

" Her voice rang out clearly and distinctly 
as she told the workmen and women of the 
reason for this building, in the erection of 
which they are so necessary. She told about 
the women at home in Canada collecting the 
money for it and for the support of us mis- 
sionaries that we may live here and teach, 
especially the women and children, about 
Christ, our Saviour, who love3 and cares for 
all people. She told of the condition of 
women in Western lands before this Saviour 
was known, and of the change that has been 
wrought through Him, and urged His claims 
in Japan, where He can do for Japanese 
women what He has done and is doing for 
their Western sisters. 

" Mr. Watanabe, the able Japanese pastor 
of Kanazawa, spoke after this about founda- 
tions. It was an eloquent address, couched in 
simplest language that all might understand. 
" At the conclusion of this address Miss 
Hargrave gave each of the ninety workmen 
and workwomen a box of cake (instead of 
the sake invariably served by the Japanese 
on similar occasions) and a copy of St. 
Mark's Gospel, together with a tract of Dr. 
Imbrie's, giving a summary of the tenets of 
Christianity. 

" A hymn and prayer, and the meeting 
broke up quietly, reverently; and as we dis- 
persed we felt that the laying of the founda- 
tion of the new Strachan Hall and Herbie 

141 



Japan 

Bellamy Home had been made the occasion 
of the preaching of the Gospel to those work- 
men in a most attractive and judicious 
manner. 

" ' I intend to have several more such meet- 
ings whenever any special phase of the build- 
ing is completed/ Miss Hargrave remarked 
when we were talking it over later on. 

' The men and women at work on the 
building are among the most prejudiced class 
in the city, and it would take many a year 
before they would be induced to attend a 
Christian service, but when the Christian ser- 
vice goes out to them they cannot fail to be 
attracted to the Saviour, who in His earthly 
life was a carpenter." 

" Moving Day " and " House Warming " 
are always memorable times, and it would be 
a pity to miss the realistic description given 
by Miss Jost: 

" Wo moved into our now house the first 
week in November. The carpenter, the tin- 
smith, the painter and the grocer all sent men 
with handcarts to help in the great work. 
This was a surprise to us, as we had not 
before had occasion to learn of this Japanese 
custom, and we appreciated the kindness 
perhaps more than the men did bv the time 
night came, for on that day, for once in the 
Hq annals of history, < the West hustled the East/ 

Warming. " ^ ™? Te P raeticalI :7 ^ed in ten davs, 

and then, feeling that such an opportunity for 

142 



Kanazawa 

reaching people should not be lost, we invited 
everyone we knew to visit ns. This house had 
created a good deal of interest in the city as, 
day by day, it grew in size and beauty, and 
our invitations were largely accepted. One 
bright day, when the house was flooded with 
sunshine and everything looked its best, forty 
little ladies came to enjoy all with us, an- 
other day the church people — about fifty, 
another the mothers of the children in 
our three kindergartens — nearly sixty of 
them. Again twenty Government school 
teachers came, and then there were smaller 
parties, until I think there was not a man 
or woman among our acquaintances in Kana- 
zawa who had not had an opportunity to see 
the inside of ' Strachan Hall ' and the c Her- 
bie Bellamy Home,' and to taste our sand- 
wiches, cake and coffee. For my part it will 
be a long time before T can look again with 
anything like interest on that particular kind 
of cake and sandwiches, so tired did I get of 
them. But all our guests were so plainly 
delighted to inspect things and so sympathetic 
in regard to the work we hope to carry on 
here that it was a pleasure to have them. A 
number of them, to show their good-will, 
brought gifts for the new home. The gift 
of the church people — a great surprise to 
us — was a beautiful large vase, which they 
had especially handpainted and inscribed at 
the industrial school here. 

143 



Japan 



How 
Utilized. 



Herbic 

Bellamy 

Home. 



"It would be useless to try to describe 
' Strachan Hall/ the home of our mission- 
aries, and where numerous and varied classes 
are held. As soon as the grounds are fixed 
up a bit I will have it and the ' Herbie 
Bellamy Home ' photographed. Even so, it 
must be seen to be appreciated. 

" Often I have wished Mrs. Strachan, Mrs. 
Ross, and other friends could visit us. One 
day, especially, I wished for friends from 
home. At the time, in two of the school 
rooms, English lessons were going on; in 
another twenty girls were having a cooking 
lesson. In a small room we call the ' waiting- 
room,' one of our teachers had her Sunday- 
school class, drilling them for Christmas, 
while in the room which has been furnished 
in Mrs. Whiston's memory, Miss DeWolfe 
was preparing for the Sunday-school Normal 
Class. An hour later I was in our own little 
parlor helping a Government school teacher 
with some music she was preparing for our 
Christmas celebration. That is the way it is 
always — every room is useful and every room 
is almost constantly in use. The house is so 
comfortable throughout without being extra- 
vagant, and could not be better suited to our 
needs. 

"I must ask you to be patient a little 
longer while T 'hold forth ' on the subject of 
the 'Herbie Bellamy Home.' Such a cosy, 

144 




STRACHAN HALL 
Kanazawa. Japan 




HERBIE BELLAMY HOME 
Kanazawa. Japan 



Kanazawa 

homey little place it is ! And we are trying 
our best to make it, in spirit as well as in 
appearance, a real home without the capital 
i H.' In a short time we will have sixteen in 
it — ten of whom are pay boarders. I should 
love to write you all about these girls, but I 
shall only say that nearly all are from homes 
where Christianity is wholly or almost un- 
known, and almost all, little or big, are abso- 
lutely without training along Christian lines. 
We realize our great responsibility and won- 
derful opportunity. The Japanese teacher 
who shares the responsibility with me is one 
of our old Shizuoka supported girls, and is 
a great help. She rooms in the hostel, and 
is thus brought into constant and close 
connection with the boarders. 

" A letter came to me a few days ago which 
shows the need of such a Home as this now 
is. A man away out in the country — a total 
stranger — wrote saying that he and his wife 
had been wanting to send their daughter to 
Kanazawa to school for a long time, but 
almost gave it up, as they knew of no safe 
place where she might board. Then, from a 
friend, he heard of this hostel, and wished 
me to appoint a time when he might meet 
me and make arrangements for her to enter. 

" I cannot close without saying how full of 
gratitude Miss DeWolfe and I have been for 
all that has come to our work and to us the 

10 145 



Japan 

last few months. It has almost overwhelmed 
us at times. It would overwhelm us were it 
only for us and the little we can do. But we 
look ahead to the time when we shall be far 
removed from it all, and others will be teach- 
ing here and these buildings will still be 
standing — a monument to the generosity of 
W.M.S. women and their love for Japan." 

Another quotation from Miss Jost sets 
forth the change from the little Orphanage, 
begun in 1893 and continued till 1913, but 
now transplanted and assuming another form : 

Orphanage « The 'Herbie Bellamy Home' demands 
to os e . more | nan a p aS si n g notice this year. Since 
the opening of the Kanazawa Orphanage we 
have felt that as a refuge for orphans our 
little house was not especially needed and 
that we might broaden its influence and help 
our work more by making it a hostel for girl 
students with a fund for helping deserving 
and needy girls. Having received Mrs. Bel- 
lamy's hearty approval of this scheme — also 
the approval of the Home Board and our 
Executive in Japan — we were convinced that 
no more suitable time than the present could 
be found to make the change. So, when we 
enter our new Home in October, our Orphan- 
age disappears and the ' Herbie Bellamy 
Home' as a hostel begins its history. The 
police readily granted permission for this 
change on condition that we dispose satis- 

146 



Kanazawa 

factorily of the orphans still with us. Three 
of these we have put in our c Jo Gakko ' in 
Shizuoka and one in our Kofu school. Two 
will enter the General Board Orphanage in 
Shizuoka. Three we will keep to help in 
the Home and school until they finish the 
Primary School, and then provide for in 
some way. 

" Those of you who read the ' Findings of 
the Mott Conference ' will remember that the 
Conference emphasized the suoreme import- 
ance of establishing Christian hostels for girls 
— we are but keeping abreast of the times in 
making this change. As to the prospect for 
the hostel, we have now two boarders with 
us who will go to the new Home, and two 
others have made inquiries about entering. 
Also, a young girl of sixteen came to us a 
few days ago for help. She is a daughter 
of a country school teacher with a large 
family and a small salary. Since April, she 
has been coming to Kanazawa to school every 
day, leaving home about 5 a.m. to travel here 
by 'basha,' which is cheaper than the train. 
This travelling back and forth left her no time 
to study, and, moreover, was breaking down 
her health, but her father could not afford to 
pay her board in Kanazawa. She began her 
story by saying, i I am not an orphan, but I 
need help.' On inquiry, we found her to be 
worthy of help, and so, to her joy, as well as 
our own, promised to help her. Many times 

147 



Japan 

we have, with sorrow, turned such girls away 
because the police orphanage regulations 
forbade us taking them into the Home. 

" Now, to be able to respond to such calls 
and know at the same time that no orphans 
in Kanazawa need go homeless while the 
spacious Kanazawa Orphanage exists, is a 
pleasure indeed. We earnestly pray: God 
bless the ' Herbie Bellamy Home ' and make 
it a true home to many a young girl and a 
blessing to Japan." 

Nineteen hundred and sixteen finds the 
accommodation fully taxed, some applicants 
having to be refused. The class of girls is 
good and much gratitude is felt for this 
" safe and happy home." 

The visit to Japan in 1914 of Herbie's 
mother, Mrs. John Bellamy, of Moose Jaw, 
Sask., was much appreciated by our mission- 
aries, and to her it must have been a special 
joy to see some of the fruits of her little boy's 
faith, enterprise and devotion. The story of 
his life has had many readers. A few years 
ago the governor of the province, a represen- 
tative of the Minister of State for Home 
Affairs, and a baron interested in charitable 
work visited the Home and made a thorough 
inspection. They seemed satisfied with all 
they saw. The two gentlemen from Tokyo 
were much interested in the story of Herbie 
Bellamy, and asked to have a copy made of 

148 




KAWAKAMI KINDERGARTEN 

Industrial Rooms upstairs. School downstairs 
Kanazawa. Japan 




BABA KINDERGARTEN 
Kanazawa, Japan 



Kanazawa 

his photograph, to be sent to them with an 
account of his life. This was done, and a 
very kind letter was received in acknowledg- 
ment. This little life sketch has been trans- 
lated into several languages, and must prove 
a stimulus and encouragement to other 
" shut-in " lives. 

Our Embroidery School at Kawakami Kawakami. 
(about a mile from the centre of the city) 
has been continued with very beneficial effect, 
not only to the girls themselves, giving them 
superior working conditions to those prevail- 
ing in factories, with social and spiritual 
advantages unknown before, but also to their 
families, who are frequently visited by the 
Bible-women and thus drawn to the Church 
and the knowledge of the truth. 

Similar industrial and evangelistic depart- Baba. 
ments have been carried on at our other city 
station, Baba, where enlarged grounds and 
improved buildings have made better work 
possible. In all these three centres the kin- 
dergarten has been a prominent feature, shed- 
ding light and love into many hearts and 
homes. One has also been opened in connec- 
tion with our church in another section 
(Shirokanecho), 1913, composed mostly of 
children from better families. 



149 



CHAPTER XIV. 



TOYAMA. 



FOE some few years our Society had sup- 
plied a Bible-woman to work in the 
adjoining province — Toyama — under the 
direction of the missionary's wife, Mrs. 
Prudham, but opportunities became so abun- 
dant and enquirers so numerous as to create 
a demand for greater help. In 1906 we find 
this record : 

" There seems to be limitless opportunity 
for helping the women in and about Toyama. 
As our Bible-woman poetically put it, ' It is 
changing from winter to spring in their 
hearts now.' " 

In the joint Council of 1909 the following 
action was taken: 

" Moved by Mr. Wilkinson, seconded by 
Miss Hargrave, and resolved : ( That whereas 
our Church has undertaken the responsibility 
for the evangelization of the larger part of 
Toyama province, with its great population 
of 800,000; and that whereas our resident 
force of workers there, being only one foreign 
missionary, one native pastor and three evan- 
gelists, is altogether inadequate to meet the 
demand of the work; and whereas in recent 

150 



Toyama 

years the opportunities for work among 
women have greatly increased in Toyama pro- 
vince, we, the united Mission Councils of the 
C.M.S., request the W.M.S. to increase the 
number of workers in Japan, so that at the 
earliest moment possible two workers may be 
stationed in this province." 

We were only too glad even partially to 
meet this request, and the following year Miss 
Margaret E. Armstrong was reappointed to 
Kanazawa, with the understanding that she 
was to reside a part of each week in the city 
of Toyama. Later this was found unsatis- 
factory, and too great an expenditure of 
strength to be travelling back and forth. 

During 1910-11 property was purchased, Japanese 
and gladly Miss Armstrong took possession pu r "^ ase( j 
of the Japanese house on the premises. She 
writes : 

" The new home is situated conveniently 
for all the work, and is in a pleasant neigh- 
borhood as well. It is an old place, one of 
the few left unharmed by the great Toyama 
conflagration of ten years ago, though it nar- 
rowly escaped a few months past, when a 
house of refuge near by was destroyed by 
fire. My heart beat fast when someone rushed 
in, exclaiming, * Your pines are on fire.' But 
it was a mistake. The fence only was burned, 
and the pines stand there straight and tall, 
whispering softly with the night winds of the 

151 



Kinder- 
garten 
Magnet. 



A Fathers' 
Meeting. 



Japan 

wonderful protection and care of the great 
All-Father." 

The next year witnessed the erection of a 
suitable building for the kindergarten, its 
daily growth proving a matter of interest to 
the whole city, and it was opened with due 
ceremony. 

" Our work in Toyama consists largely in 
preparing bait, and the kindergarten, with 
its seventy-five happy little people, adapts 
itself admirably to this object, even the most 
prejudiced homes opening their doors to us 
because we come from the kindergarten." 

The efforts of our missionaries are by no 
means confined to the cities. Many towns and 
villages are visited regularly, classes of vari- 
ous kinds established, literature distributed, 
and faithful Bible instruction given. 

A novelty appears in the following : " At 
the solicitation of one or two fathers we had 
a ' fathers' meeting ' in the beginning of 
January (1916), while the public offices 
were still closed for the ~New Year. A good 
number attended, and all talked freely about 
the improvement the kindergarten had made 
in their children and its influence through 
them upon themselves." 



152 



CHAPTER XV. 



NAGANO. 



ABOUT one hundred miles east of Kana- 
zawa we find Nagano, the large inland 
city, famed for its great Buddhist temple, 
Zenkoji, with its pronounced opposition to 
Christianity. For nearly twenty years the 
Woman's Missionary Society has had a foot- 
hold here amidst many difficulties, but 
gradually overcoming prejudice. 

In 1909 a grant was made for a much- EoSSty. 
needed home and centre. Fortunately land 
was secured in a fine locality, adjoining that 
of the General Board, the cordial sympathy 
and active co-operation of Rev. D. and 
Mrs. Norman making this a delightful 
arrangement. 

Under the supervision of Miss Hart a suit- 
able building was erected the following year, 
which provided a kindergarten room as well 
as a home for the missionaries, the Bible- 
women and Japanese teachers. 

The line of effort in Nagano and vicinity 
has been chiefly evangelistic through meet- 
ings, classes, visiting, kindergartens, etc. 

Miss Tweedie writes in 1912 : 
" Last autumn we began in Nagano under 
rather trying conditions. Miss Scott and I 

153 



Japan 



Witnessing 

and 

Winning. 



came in September, and as the Japanese 
workers were all comparatively new, it took 
us a long time to get acquainted with our 
work. We had no Bible-woman for three 
months, which was the greatest drawback of 
all. Old San came to us in November, when 
our hopes grew brighter. 

" In February some High School girls who 
expected to graduate in April asked us for 
special help in their English studies. Miss 
Scott gave them English and singing lessons 
twice a week. Through this opportunity one 
became an earnest seeker, and has lately 
decided for Christ. Another entered Azabu 
school in April, and three others have begun 
to attend the Sunday school and church 
services. 

" Through the Bible- woman's faithful 
teaching in the homes some women during 
the year have been led to Christ. One is spe- 
cially worthy of mention. She accepted 
Christ as her Saviour upon Oki San's second 
visit with her, and since then her faithful 
study of the Word and bright testimony to 
the power of God in her life have been a great 
help and blessing to other women. In March 
she visited her younger brother who was seri- 
ously ill, and had the joy of hearing him 
express his faith in God ere he passed away. 
Since then she has been trying to lead her 
father and husband, and the latter, who was 
at first strongly opposed to Christianity, has, 



154 




KINDERGARTEN AND HOME 

Nagano, Japan 




1916 GRADUATION CLASS, KINDERGARTEN 
Nagano. Japan 



Nagano 

through her influence, attended special meet- 
ings in the church and given his consent to 
her being baptized. 

" Her testimony just before her baptism in 
June was, ' I am so full of joy that I cannot 
keep silent.' 

" Many of the homes that we visit in 
Nagano have been opened to Christian teach- 
ing through Mrs. Norman's cooking class and 
her untiring interest and faithful work for 
the women in other ways. I know in many 
cases that we are reaping where she has 
broken the soil and faithfully sown the seed. 
" We were given a special opportunity dur- 
ing a great Buddhist festival in April, and 
gave away six thousand Gospels and over ten 
thousand tracts." 

" At the Christmas season we were able to Postmen, 
do something for the postmen of Nagano city. 
This came about through our acquaintance 
with the head official of post-office affairs for 
the province. His little girl entered the kin- 
dergarten in September, and his wife, who 
came sometimes to our mothers' meetings, 
asked for Christian teaching. When we made 
request to have a Christmas gathering for the 
postmen, it was readily granted. We had the 
meeting twice, as half were on duty while the 
others came, and they all greatly enjoyed the 
Christmas singing and addresses from Kev. 
Mr. Norman and the pastor of the church. 
It was the first time many of them had heard 

155 



Japan 

the old story, and for days afterwards when 
our mail was brought around we received with 
it smiles and kind words of gratitude. We 
were glad to know that many of them realized 
that it was the religion of Jesus Christ had 
caused us to do this for them. A letter of 
deep appreciation was also received from the 
head official. We regret to say that he has 
since been appointed to another place, but 
hope that at the next Christmas season the 
opportunity may again be given to us. 

" The Young Woman's Society, organized 
and led by Miss Scott, has done good work. 
The object of this meeting is to help young 
women by getting them to take an interest in 
and work for others. The members of the 
society meet for two hours each month, and 
after a half-hour of devotional exercises the 
rest of the time is given to fancy-work, sew- 
ing, and making picture books for sick chil- 
dren in the hospital or in their homes. At 
Christmas time over twenty yen raised by this 
society was spent for rice, clothing and sumi, 
and taken by the members with a Christmas 
message to a few families in extremely poor 
circumstances." 



156 



CHAPTEE XVI. 



UEDA. 



A SHORT ride by train from Nagano 
brings us to the town of Ueda, where 
our interest centres chiefly in work for the 
little ones. 

In the previous volume of " The Story of 
the Years " there occurs this short reference : 
"A training class for kindergarteners is in 
operation at "Ueda." From the report we 
learn that with some trepidation it was 
opened, September 5th, 1905, with two stu- 
dents. The results have amply justified the 
undertaking of this school of preparation, at 
first under the superintendence of Miss De 
Wolfe and subsequently of Miss Drake. 
Through it Christian teachers, well equipped, 
have been provided for the many kinder- 
gartens under our care. 

Miss Drake in 1914 sums up some of the 
visible results of the previous years during 
which she had had charge : 

" From the Training School, during these T r * ini 1 n f 
five years, we have graduated nineteen girls K C i n 5er-° r 
from the full two years' course, and five gartners. 
others have prepared themselves as assistant 
teachers by studying one year. Of the twenty- 

157 



Japan 

four, eighteen are still teaching, and of the 
remaining six, four are married or just about 
to be, leaving only two who are unemployed. 
Taking these eighteen girls and giving each 
the small average of thirty-five children to 
teach, we find that our Training School is 
every day influencing about six hundred chil- 
dren. Besides this, each girl is conducting 
every week one or more children's meetings 
at which she teaches the regular Sunday- 
school lesson. These teachers also visit regu- 
larly in the homes of the children. This goes 
to show how necessary it is for our girls 
to receive the best training possible, both 
along educational and evangelistic lines, and 
although we desire to give them these advan- 
tages our plans are often frustrated because 
of the difficulty in keeping our best graduates 
for teachers of the Training School. This 
year a teacher doing good work, but who has 
only been with us two years since graduation, 
left us to study in the Salvation Army train- 
ing school, to fit herself to become the wife of 
one of the officers. Because of this we had 
to put in one of this year's graduates ; and so 
year by year this goes on. How thankful we 
would be if we could get one to stay long 
enough to become the mature, influential 
teacher we need. 

" The reports from the places where the 
girls are working are, on the whole, encourag- 
ing. Each girl has her own distinctive char- 

158 




MISSIONARIES' HOME 
Ueda. Japan 




KINDERGARTEN .BUILDING 
Ueda. Japan 



Ueda 

acteristics, and these seem sometimes to 
develop in unexpected ways, surprising those 
with whom she is working, and her training 
teacher as well. However, the work here has 
been done faithfully through the years, and 
we know that God is blessing the different 
girls and leading them on through various 
experiences to be useful workers for Him. 
One of our married girls wrote me a letter 
recently, telling me of the renewed interest in 
her studies of child training, which came with 
the birth of her own child. She says she is 
reviewing her work, copying her notes out in 
a new book ; and she now sees as never before 
what a great privilege it is for girls to have 
the kindergarten training to fit them to be 
good mothers." 

Graduates receive provincial certificates 
from the Governor, which gives them an 
advantageous standing in the community. 

We have a fine property in Ueda, a com- 
fortable house for our missionaries, built 
under the direction of Miss Crombie, with 
an excellent, well-equipped kindergarten on 
one side and on the other a Japanese house 
for the teachers and students in training. In 
the rear is a good plot of ground, which is 
growing in beauty. Some years since the 
mothers of the little kindergarten graduates 
presented two large plum trees, saying that 
each year one would be given. The name of 

159 



Japan 



Tobacco 
Overcome. 



Victory 

Over 

Death. 



the school is the Baikwa (plum blossom) 
Kindergarten. 

Showing the practical effect of the instruc- 
tion given these little ones, the following inci- 
dent is related: "In calling at one of the 
homes during the year a father told us that 
for three years he had not used tobacco 
because his little boy, then attending kinder- 
garten, had talked to him about it and had 
shown him Sunday-school papers telling of 
its evil effects. A mother in another home 
said that she always gave the papers she 
received at mothers' meetings to the men in 
the store, and one young clerk, after reading 
the articles on tobacco, also gave it up. 

« The victory of 1 Cor. 15. 55-57 has been 
illustrated in the case of one brought to Christ 
through the children's meetings. Miss Beatty 
visited her during her last illness, and. after 
her death was surprised as well as delighted 
to be told that the family wished to study 
Christianity for themselves. They told her 
that, in addition to the doctor, they had con- 
■ suited priests, fortune-tellers, had offered 
prayer at various shrines, but all to no effect. 
The Christians' God alone had brought com- 
fort and joy to the daughter's heart, and her 
death had been a falling asleep. Even the 
doctor had been unable to understand such 
a peaceful end, both of body and mind, to one 
suffering from that disease. 

"One little boy, who had been in the 



160 



Ueda 

Baikwa kindergarten for four years, died this 
spring, about two weeks after having received 
his diploma. His mother is the president of 
our mothers' meeting and wife of a prominent 
physician of the town. These parents are not 
Christians, but were so touched with the 
child's Christian spirit — as they expressed it 
— that they asked us to have a Christian ser- 
vice for him. We met at the home on Easter 
Sunday, and our pastor conducted an impres- 
sive service, listened to reverently by all the 
members of the family. The mother after- 
wards brought to us his little savings, and 
asked that with the money something be 
bought for the kindergarten. During his ill- 
ness he often asked his parents and teachers 
to pray with him, and when they did so he 
became quiet and happy. We feel that this 
little missionary has done his work, and are 
hoping for, and expecting, results. 

"A man who formerly practically owned 
the whole of Kazawa, but who, in spite of 
heavy losses through drink, still had a com- 
fortable home and influence in the town, 
visited the Lanaka children's meeting last 
fall, in search of something to comfort the 
heartache caused by the death of his favorite 
daughter. The result was the opening of his 
home as a centre for Christian work in that 
town. .p 

" In April, 1908, we opened a kindergarten ^n m 
in Komoro. The people of Komoro provided Komoro. 

11 161 



Japan 

the land and building, we the furnishings and 
teachers. This plan has worked splendidly. 
The Komoro people have been generous and 
earnest, doing their part of the work with 
enthusiasm. Over one hundred children 
desired to enter the kindergarten, but accom- 
modation had been provided for fifty only. 
The people who could not enter their chil- 
dren were so disappointed that we have prom- 
ised to open an afternoon session from Sep- 
tember. The earnestness of the Komoro 
people is wonderful, and plans are on foot 
to build a kindergarten to accommodate one 
hundred children. It is delightful to see 
some of the wealthiest and most influential 
men alive with interest over the education of 
the babies ; and, better still, to know that they 
leave us perfectly free to teach Christ and 
His gospel of love. The first mothers' meet- 
ing was held in June. Sixteen were present, 
thirteen of whom had never attended a 
Christian meeting before." 

The next year Miss Hart reports the 
following : 

" The founders of Komoro kindergarten 
gave a farewell dinner for Miss De Wolfe, 
at which they thanked her most heartily for 
her work in connection with the kindergarten, 
and added that in thanking her they were also 
thanking the Woman's Missionary Society, 

162 



Ueda 

not only for themselves and Komoro, but for 
Japan. 

" The principal of the primary school, in 
expressing his sympathy with the kindergar- 
ten, said he had been deeply impressed by the 
spirit of love that permeated our work, 'love 
which,' he said, ' I believe you call the love 
of Christ.' " 

Not from lack of continued interest or suc- 
cess, but because of the difficulty in supplying 
teachers properly to supervise from Ueda, it 
was resolved in 1916 to notify the Komoro 
founders (according to agreement) of our 
desire to pass the work over to them, offering 
the use of the tables, chairs, organ, etc., if 
they continue it. 

The year 1912 in Ueda was marked by a church, 
new church, of which we find a very modest 
record in Miss Drake's report: " Miss Beatty 
has returned home on furlough, but has left 
behind her, as a result of painstaking labor, 
a much-needed church building, which the 
workers in Ueda will always gratefully 
appreciate." Subsequently we learn that, 
owing to the representations of Miss Beatty 
to her home church in Parry Sound, a most 
generous contribution was forwarded. This 
was supplemented by personal friends of the 
missionaries, while the Japanese were stimu- 
lated also to give liberally. 

163 



Turning 
Christ- 
ward. 



Japan 

The following glowing account of spiritual 
conditions is from Miss Beatty herself : 

" Our year's work closed with a week of 
special meetings conducted by Kev. Kawabe, 
of Osaka. Deep indeed is our gratitude for 
the many who came each night to hear the 
Gospel message ; for the one hundred inquir- 
ers who gave in their names desiring to know 
more of the Christ so clearly revealed to them 
in these meetings; for those for whom we 
have been working and praying for months 
and years who decided to accept Christ as 
their Saviour; and for the Christians and 
workers, especially those of our own house- 
hold, awakened to a sense of their unclaimed 
privileges in Christ and their responsibility 
towards others. 

" These meetings came as a beautiful pre- 
paration for the opening of our new church 
the following week, dedicated June 29th, by 
Bishop Hiraiwa." 

Miss Hart writes: 

" Among the many causes for constant 
thanksgiving during the year are the bright 
new church, with accommodation for about 
two hundred, in place of the former small, 
unattractive, dark room; the life of faith 
and works of the nine who received baptism 
the Sunday after the dedication ; the growing 
congregation ; the deeper spiritual life of our 
Bible-woman and kindergarten teachers, and 



164 



Ueda 

the many times our Father has allowed us to 
know of direct answers to our united prayer 
and effort for the salvation of those around us. 

" A Christian woman who was hiding her " Go home 
light, being ill-treated by husband and family to th y 
and thoroughly unhappy, has again found a^tell 
peace, is letting her light shine through efforts them." 
to lead others, and rejoices in being allowed 
to attend church. After an especially helpful 
sermon one evening she said to her husband, 
'I wish you could have heard that sermon 
to-night.' ' I did/ was his answer. 

"Another wife was in despair over an 
unfaithful husband, a neglected family and 
business. The man began to stay at home, 
listen secretly to the Bible lessons, put in 
practice what he learned, and one day took 
his wife by surprise by asking questions on 
the lesson just given her, and when she was 
unable to answer without reference to her 
Bible, repeated what he had overheard." 

The condition of girls in factories, of Factory 
whom there are so many thousands, has Girls * 
appealed strongly to our missionaries, and 
wherever possible some rays of light and cheer 
have been introduced; but with infrequent 
and very limited opportunities to instruct, 
one is surprised that anything could be 
accomplished beyond satisfying curiosity and 
affording a pleasant variety in a very mon- 
otonous life of hard work and long hours, 

165 



Japan 



Request 

from 

Factory. 



seven days in the week; but now and again 
we are encouraged by items such as the 
following : 

"A post-office savings department official, 
who addresses factory hands quite often, told 
me this spring that he had noticed a great 
change for the better in the girls of Tokida 
factory since we began work there, adding, 
' I wish you could go and teach in all the fac- 
tories around here.' This from a non-Chris- 
tian was good news, for, apart from the hearty 
welcome they give us themselves, we have 
little chance of knowing the effects of our 
teaching. 

" For several years, for a few weeks in the 
spring, we have been allowed to hold meetings 
in one of the large silk factories in Ueda. 
This year the manager of an adjoining fac- 
tory, where until now Buddhist teaching has 
been regularly given, came over to see what 
the Christians were teaching. Evidently the 
report was satisfactory, for immediately came 
an invitation to hold meetings in that factory 
also. 

"Last fall a special effort was made to 
extend our work in the silk factories, with 
the result that seven additional ones have 
been entered. Three of these have allowed a 
meeting once a month all year, and the others 
willingly gave permission for a single meet- 
ing, with the promise of another invitation 

166 



Ueda 

later. In the Ueda factory Shimada San's 
faithful teaching has resulted in two bap- 
tisms." 

It is impossible with limited space to out- 
line all that is being done in towns and 
villages, as well as in the cities, by our faith- 
ful and alert missionaries, aided by their 
zealous and increasingly-competent Bible- 
women and assistants, nor fully to indicate 
the methods employed; but what has been 
accomplished is but a beginning. A fragment 
only of the community has been reached. 
Some openings rather surprise our weak faith, 
but surely call for grateful praise. 

"We have had help from a rather unex- a Brewer's 
pected source this year. A brewer offered his Offer. 
branch home for work in that place. Upon 
my remarking that his business and mine 
could not work together, he answered, 'I 
know ; but I also know that temperance work 
is much needed there, so please make that a 
strong point in your teaching. ' We took him 
at his word, began a children's meeting, which 
has had the largest attendance of any of our 
meetings. Later he closed that branch, but 
secured another house for us. He has since 
brought more invitations to new places than 
we can possibly follow up. Influence 

"After several requests I started a Bible QovcrrT g 
study class in December for Middle School mcnt 
students. We use the English Testament, but Schools. 

167 



Japan 



Vacation 
Employ- 
ment 



the lesson is taught in Japanese. A banker 
and two teachers asked to join the class and 
in a short time we had twenty-five members, 
and nearly all have become regular attendants 
at church. 

" Our class for High School girls has been 
larger than usual this year. Last summer, 
while in Karuizawa, we had a Bible class on 
Sunday with the eleven policemen there, and 
are to have it again this year with a larger 
number. 

" Our kindergarten building has been the 
home of a small school for blind children this 
year. About once a month the patrons — also 
blind — have a meeting and have asked for a 
Gospel message each time. 

; * During the winter three young ladies 
from the town attended my Sunday Bible 
study class with our teachers and pupils. 

"Knowing the influence of teachers in 
Japan we are inclined to credit the large 
attendance at my class for students to the 
fact that their teachers attend Miss Bird's 
Bible class. Although that class came for 
English at first, one member has been con- 
verted and others have acknowledged their 
earnest desire to know the Truth. 
" To God we give all the praise. 
" In September, by special request of the 
Methodist Episcopal Conference, we took over 
the work at Matsushiro. and along with it the 
Bible-woman, who has been able to help us in 



168 



Ueda 

Xagano as welL As we now have two Bible- 
women, Yashiro has been visited from Nagano 
instead of Ueda as formerly. 

"There have been twenty-one new homes Fr *it 
opened for visiting this year. Weareenconr- ^^ 
aged by having seen new proofs that seed Days, 
which seems sometimes to have been sown in 
vain is watched over by a Higher Power and 
does spring np and grow. One woman who 
has been a Christian for a long time, but who, 
in spite of many prayers offered for her and 
much teaching, has always insisted that Chris- 
tianity and Buddhism were two ways of reach- 
ing the same goal and one as good as the 
other, has lately met with troubles and has 
realized that there is something lacking in 
her faith and has changed her mind com- 
pletely. She is searching her Bible diligently 
and has requested special Bible instruction. 
Another woman who received Bible teaching 
for years without any interest whatever in it, 
has had her heart touched and now wonders 
at her former lack of interest and is most 
enthusiastic in her efforts to hnd the truth. 

" A splendid spirit has existed amongst our Taking 
workers all year, consequently it has been a pPP 01 *^- 
real joy to work with them. The teachers Hand, 
have been especially earnest in their evangel- 
istic work in the homes, starting out every 
calling day with an intense desire to lead the 
mothers to a knowledge of the true God. One 
teacher decided that under no circumstance 

169 



Japan 

would she leave a home without having pre- 
sented the message. Perhaps one of the forces 
which led to this decision was the death of 
the wife of the caretaker in our Tokida kin- 
dergarten. This teacher and her co-worker 
used to eat their lunch in her home the day 
they called in that district. While they rested 
they took the opportunity of pointing her to 
the Saviour, and she really found Him, and 
her joy and satisfaction were great, her faith 
simple and beautiful. One day the news came 
that she had suddenly passed away, and how 
great was the joy of the two who had prepared 
her for her journey! This made a deep 
impression upon them, and they were so 
thankful that they had used the opportunity 
to teach one who, being so near, might have 
been overlooked. 
Tested and " Our janitor one day received at the bank 
Found ^en dollars above the amount asked for, 

although two cashiers had counted it. He 
returned it, much to their surprise. On com- 
ing back he said, ' I cannot but feel that the 
Lord gave me that test, as an opportunity to 
witness for Him before men of position that 
I, a poor, ignorant man, could not otherwise 
have had.' The ordinary thing under such 
circumstances would have been to keep the 
money.' ' 

At the close of 1916 our missionary staff 
consists of 24 Canadian ladies, with 5 on 

170 



True. 



Ueda 

furlough; 87 Japanese teachers; 23 Bible- 
women and 68 senior student helpers. Num- 
ber of towns and stations occupied, 151. 

It should be noted that from the first we 
have had regard to the self-respect of the 
Japanese in the matter of meeting necessary 
current expenses in the education of their 
daughters, while not at all excluding those 
unable to do so. During the five years, 
1911-16, there were received from fees, 
$52,772.80, toward the cost of Japanese 
teachers and helpers, fuel, light, board, 
supplies, etc. 

At the annual meeting, 1916, the Board 
very reluctantly acceded to the request for 
retirement of two of its most valued mission- 
aries — Miss Margrave, after twenty-seven 
years of unsurpassed service, and Miss 
Alcorn after twenty years, a great evangelistic 
leader. 

Not in a spirit of boasting, but in humble 
acknowledgment of God's gracious benedic- 
tion, and with sincere gratitude to Him, we 
count the baptisms in connection with our 
woman's work, and find the total number of 
these confessed disciples during the ten years 
to be 955. 

As all have received careful and continued 
instruction and more or less training in Chris- 
tian service, may we not hope for much added 
strength to the Church of Christ and the 
extension of His Kingdom? 

171 



CHINA 



Chengtu 

Kiating 

Jenshow 

Junghsien 

Tzeliutsing 

Luchow 

Penghsien 

Chungking 



TOPSY-TURVY WAYS IN CHINA 



THEY mount a horse on the right side 
instead of the left; the old men play- 
marbles and fly kites, while children look 
gravely on; they shake hands with them- 
selves instead of with each other; what we 
call the surname is written first and the other 
name afterward ; they whiten their shoes in- 
stead of blacking them; a coffin is a very 
acceptable present to a rich parent in good 
health; in the north they sail and pull their 
wheelbarrows in place of merely pushing 
them; and candlesticks fit into the candle 
instead of the candle fitting into the candle- 
stick, and so on. . . . China is a country 
where the roses have no scent and the women 
no petticoats; where the laborer has no Sab- 
bath day of rest, and the magistrate no sense 
of honor; where the roads have no carriages 
and the ships have no keels ; where the needle 
points to the south, the place of honor is on 
the left hand, and the seat of intellect is 
supposed to lie in the stomach; where it is 
rude to take off your hat, and to wear white 
clothes is to go into mourning. Can one be 
astonished to find a literature without an 
alphabet and a language without a gram- 
mar? — Temple Bar. 



CHAPTEE XVII. 

CHINA. 



A FOREWORD. 

BEFOKE entering upon the record of the 
activities of the Woman's Missionary 
Society in the Province of Szechwan it seems 
necessary to state briefly the causes that have 
given our missionaries a new environment, a 
more assured standing-ground, as well as 
greatly enlarged opportunities, imperatively 
calling for large additions to our staff. 

1906-1916. A decade! A mere pin-point 
of time in the life of a people to whom "a 
thousand years are but as yesterday," yet in 
the ten years since the last volume of the 
" Story of the Years " was written, China — 
official China — has changed as if by magic. 
The whole gamut of national life has been 
played upon. The sounds evoked may not all 
have been musical, to say nothing of having 
been harmonious, yet they have been strong, 
virile, and, in process of time, we have faith 
to believe that purity of tone will dominate 
the whole when this great people find the true 
I4eal, which they unconsciously seek, in Jesus 
Christ. 

175 



China 

Official Edicts. — All are familiar with the 
revolutions and riots of the period which 
eventuated in the sweeping away of that abso- 
lute, hereditary government, the Manchu 
dynasty, giving place to a republic — in name 
at least, but which will be in time the real 
thing, "f or the people, by the people " — with 
its new flag so gaily appealing to all the pro- 
vinces. Then followed the passing of the 
queue, that mark of conquest worn since 
1644. The order was " immediate/' and it 
was gone. 

Educational Revolution. — Gone, too, for- 
ever, the old classical education. China now 
takes her stand with Western nations, meets 
them on their own ground. Government 
schools, colleges and universities, some of the 
latter with almost fabulous endowments, have 
been opened all over the land. As Christians 
we are greatly interested in the several Union 
Missionary Universities, especially the one 
in Chengtu, in which Canadian Methodists 
co-operate with three other missions. Rev. 
"Dr. Goucher tells us that sixty-five million 
children are waiting for schools. Mission 
schools have now one hundred thousand 
pupils, but could have ten times that number 
if teachers were available. 

Educational Unions are lifting the lower 
school system to a higher level. 

Perhaps the most striking illustration of 
advance in the ten years has been in the 

176 



A Foreword 

education of women, which reached a pictur- 
esque climax last year when ten girls — the 
product of mission schools — were sent to 
American colleges under the Boxer Indemnity 
Fund ! Hitherto only boys had enjoyed that 
privilege. 

Conquering and to Conquer. — We are 
thrilled by proof of this when we find a 
chronology, dating prior to the time of Abra- 
ham, changed to agree with the Christian 
calendar. The Chinese officially changed 
their New Year from February 18th to 
January 1st, the lunar to the solar year, in 
1912. Another proof: the official adoption 
of 'the Christian Sabbath as a holiday or rest 
day, thus closing all government offices. This 
liberates public-school children and makes 
possible the attendance of thousands at Sun- 
day school. A Pekin shop displays this sign 
every Sunday, " To-day is worship day "—a 
new idea to those who have worked seven days 
in the week. 

Religious Liberty. — Men high up in the 
state are now free to serve the Christ publicly, 
and they do ; free to propagate the faith, and 
they do. The foundation work of many 
missionaries paved the way for the marvel- 
lous evangelistic campaigns of Dr. John E. 
Mott and Mr. Sherwood Eddy, carried on 
during the past three years; these, coupled 
with the undenominational work of the 
Y.M.C.A., have changed not only the attitude 

12 177 



China 

of official China, but, what is still more im- 
portant, the attitude of the large student 
body, the tap-root of future power and 
influence. 

Number of Christians. — In 1834 there 
were three Protestant Christians; in 1876 
only thirteen thousand; now four hundred 
thousand, and doubling every six years. 

Moral Reform. — China has led the way in 
moral reform through the official wiping out 
of the opium curse ; Eussia valiantly followed 
with the law against the selling of vodka. In 
the land of Sinim there are no halfway 
measures; obey the law or suffer the conse- 
quences; lose the poppy trade or lose your 
head. Some actually took the chance, and 
lost. All opium smokers were disfranchised 
during the 1913 elections. 

Foot-binding. — We are not prepared to 
admit that women are more difficult to govern 
than men, but we are forced to confess that 
the edict forbidding foot-binding has not 
brought whole-hearted or universal obedience. 
That may be because the lady of the " lily 
feet " is more eagerly sought in marriage by 
men of wealth, but little feet have had their 
senseless day and will soon be of the past. 

All the above official changes, great though 
they are, merely serve to indicate the amaz- 
ing turn-over in social and industrial life. 
Of the latter the most ominous from every 

178 



A Foreword 

point of view is the decay of the old-fashioned 
household industries, which is forcing women 
and children by tens of thousands into nerve- 
racking, exhausting factory life, a life that 
knows neither day nor night, week-day nor 
rest-day, for they run two long twelve-hour 
shifts. " The cry of the children," wrung 
from little hearts through our Western 
industrialism ! 

Superstition is passing. The bar against 
railways has been raised, and thousands of 
miles are now in process of construction; 
mines are being opened, discovering vast 
mineral wealth, with coal in abundance. 

Modem Utilities. — All the larger cities 
possess electric lighting, paved streets, water 
systems, police organization — in a word, all 
the facilities of Western city life, leaving out 
neither automobiles, aeroplanes nor "movies." 

The public press is equally progressive, 
with its foreign news, wireless communica- 
tions and up-to-the-minute happenings. Cer- 
tainly this is a new day to the Tching Pao, 
the official gazette of Pekin, which has just 
celebrated its one thousand and eighth birth- 
day. We wonder what its first editor thinks 
of it all — he being theoretically alive. 

All who study the following history should 
keep in mind this new background if they 
would grasp the potentialities of the present 
hour for the advancement of the kingdom of 
our Lord Jesus Christ. — E. W. R. 

179 



Szechwan Province. 

(Pronounced Sich-wan. Population, 100,000,000.) 

At the close of the period recorded in the 
previous edition of "The Story of the Years," 
the Woman's Missionary Society was repre- 
sented in China by nine Canadian young 
women, residing and working in three cities — 
Chengtu, Kiating and Jenshow. Since that 
time four additional cities have been occu- 
pied — Junghsien, Tzeliutsing, Luchow and 
Penghsien — our staff in 1916 numbering 
twenty-seven ; but we shall first take note of 
our varied work in the capital city of the 
province. 



CHAPTER XVIII. 

CHENGTU. 
(Pronounced Chen-doo. Population, 500,000.) 



T 



HE compound in Chengtu comprises Head- 



about three and a half acres. This 
sounds spacious, but it is none too large to 
accommodate buildings for a residence, a 
boarding school of sixty pupils, with separate 
dining-room, a gymnasium, an orphanage, a 
hospital and dispensary with native guest 
rooms, leaving limited ground for play. 

Girls' School. 

Our missionaries need to be architects, mas- 
ter masons, carpenters and painters, as well as 
teachers, physicians, nurses and musicians, 
and they find full scope for all qualifications. 
Uncounted hours and endless thought had 
been given to the erection of these buildings 
by Miss Sara O. Brackbill (our efficient secre- 
tary-treasurer and principal for many years), 
while at the same time carrying on the board- 
ing school, said to be the finest and best-con- 
ducted school west of Chungking. Furlough 
time arrived before the school building was 
completed, but Miss Hambley proved an able 
successor. Her comment is : u Some people 

181 



quarters. 



China 

may wish to build their own foundations, but 
I could wish for nothing more than the place 
given me in this school, where years of suc- 
cessful work have laid a broad and sure foun- 
dation, and where at last a properly-built 
and equipped school is ready for use. On 
May 29th, 1907, when one classroom was 
finished, the school was moved over, just 
fourteen months from the laying of the first 
stone. That very week the iron beds arrived, 
and a number of the dormitories were at once 
put to use to relieve the crowding in the few 
rooms over the dining-room building." 

Value One lack remained — a gymnasium — a most 

nasium necessary adjunct to a girls' school, as during 

the spring and fall months it is impossible to 
exercise out in the sun. This was happily 
completed in 1908, the floor space measuring 
fifty feet by thirty, affording standing-room 
for fifty girls using dumb-bells or for other 
such exercise. May not this throw an added 
light on the following : 

" In the old school building girls were con- 
stantly going with consumption, that dreadful 
plague of China's young women, and malaria 
was too common to mention. In a whole year 
in our new building we have had only one 
case of malaria, and girls who were subject 
to it every couple of months have never had 
it here at all. How we praise God for a good 
building and plenty of light and air. Thou- 

182 




GIRLS' BOARDING SCHOOL 

Chengtu, China 




BOARDING PUPILS IN GIRLS' SCHOOL 
Chengtu. China 



Chengtu 

sands of young girls die in China every year 
who might be saved by fresh air, cod liver oil, 
milk and eggs." 

We are happy to live in an age of progress, Govern- 
one of the signs being a clearer recognition of Reforms in 
the necessity of education, generally diffused Education, 
(accompanied by righteousness), to bring any 
nation to its highest development. It was a 
great day for China when she changed her 
aim and mode of education. In 1909 we find 
the following steps were taken : 

" China has asked six prominent mission- 
aries there to accept chairs in its universities 
and teach Christianity. China is moving, and 
moving towards compulsory education. At 
present the following reforms are under way : 

" (1) Viceroys and governors are ordered 
to open at least one hundred preparatory 
schools in each political capital within twelve 
months, each school to enrol fifty children. 

" (2) Eich Chinese are also ordered to 
open as many other schools as possible, and 
they will be rewarded for so doing. 

" (3) All boys over eight years of age must 
go to school, and in case of failure the par- 
ents, guardians or officials will be held respon- 
sible for the neglect and will be punished for 
the same. 

" (4) Every prefecture must have forty 
preparatory schools, and every town or village 
one or two. 

183 



Chengtu 

" (5) The viceroys and governors must 
report the opening of the schools, and a gov- 
ernment inspector must visit them." 

The Church of God, through its various Mission- 
missions, had been the first to recognize the pi oneers> 
absolute need for the education of girls and 
to provide for it, as we have seen. 

14 In days gone by each mission school fol- 
lowed its own sweet will, made out its own 
course of study, selected its own text-books 
out of scores of available ones. Truly in 
China at present 'of making many books 
there is no end.' But when the Chinese waked 
up with such a sudden start, and began in 
earnest to open government schools, our mis- 
sion schools felt the need of union for strength 
to make them all they should be to command 
the respect of the people. 

"In 1905 the various missions sent repre- Christian 
sentatives to Chengtu to consider the subject Educational 
of union in school work. They met again 
in 1906, as a committee on primary and 
secondary education, and to act for the Board 
of Education which should later be formed 
of this committee and the Senate and Faculty 
of the proposed union university. The aim 
has been to promote the unification and cen- 
tralization of primary educational institu- 
tions for boys and girls by means of a uniform 
course of study, similar text-books, and com- 

185 



China 



Uniform 
Studies 

and Exam- 
inations. 



mon examinations, and to promote the 
organization of a Union Christian University. 

" The Union has met the great need of the 
present situation in our schools. We went to 
work with a will to get our girls' school into 
line with the new course of study. The first 
public examination in 1907 helped greatly to 
show us our defects. All through the follow- 
ing year our pupils had the stimulus of fail- 
ures behind and honors to be won in the 
future, and they have worked hard. 

" Our schools are graded Junior Primary, 
Senior Primary, and Secondary or Middle 
Schools. Examinations are set by the Union 
on the fourth and fifth years of the Junior 
Primary and in each of the four years of the 
Senior Primary and the five years of the 
Middle School. According to this grading, a 
student would take fourteen years to complete 
the course and be ready for the University. 
But we have arranged things elastic enough 
these first years that a student may come in 
who is already well up in Chinese classics, 
and who will be able to take two years' work 
in one in some of the other subjects. We have 
several girls who came in six years ago and 
have passed in a good many of the subjects 
in the first year of the Middle School, which 
would correspond somewhat with the first 
year of High School work in Ontario. 

" The examinations the second year were 
met with considerable trepidation but with a 



186 




MISSIONARIES' HOME 

Chengtu. China 




GYMNASIUM, GIRLS' SCHOOL 

Chengtu, China 



Chengtu 

settled, quiet determination that was very 
gratifying. There were certainly proofs of 
a great deal of moral training since the pre- 
vious year's examinations, which was the first 
experience of the kind they had ever encoun- 
tered, and the tears shed almost outdid the 
writing. Thirty-nine wrote on the various 
subjects." 

By 1915 we have the following gratifying 
record : 

"Every girl has her individual strong 
point. We have an excellent gymnasium 
teacher in training. One is a natural artist 
and can teach classes quite well, using the 
methods she has seen her teacher use. 
Another leads everything in mathematics. 
Some others take specially to music and are 
becoming good players. Several girls have 
good alto voices, others have a specially good 
soprano. The oldest pupil-teacher, Miss 
Whang, is a tower of strength for managing. 
For instance, she gets up at five o'clock in 
the morning to give out the day's supply of 
rice, rather than leave it over night, for fear 
some may be stolen. The girl, Lin Ho Nin, 
of the Orphanage, is a bright student. One 
of her accomplishments is the use of crayon 
or pen to illustrate her lessons. Fang E"in 
Lan, only ten years old, can lead the whole 
school in physical exercises — another gym- 
nasium teacher in miniature. There is a 

187 



China 

regular swarm of girls coming on from the 
lower classes, all jealous for the honor and 
good of the school they love so dearly." 

At the annual meeting of the West China 
Christian Educational Union, the Secretary 
reported : 

Fir s* "It is sincere matter for congratulation 

Diploma. that this year for the firgt time a Middle 

School diploma has been granted to a woman 
student, who comes from the school of the 
Woman's Board of the Canadian Mission in 
Chengtu. 

" It is also a subject for some consideration 
that of sixty-two diplomas granted for the 
primary grades forty-two, or over two-thirds, 
went to girls. The most probable reason for 
this is that the girls' schools are directly 
under the control of missionaries trained at 
home for teaching and giving their whole 
time to the schools. There is also a greater 
proportion of boarding-schools for girls than 
boys." 

D ay Day schools in all the stations, and many 

Schools. outside places, bring light and truth to num- 
erous little lives and homes, and also furnish 
a field of usefulness and training to some of 
the senior students in our boarding-schools. 
Oue missionary writes: 

' The day school work has been more 

encouraging than ever. goes daily, 

except when I go two hours a week, and she 

188 



Chengtu 

is doing splendid work. At Chinese New 
Year there came in over twenty entirely new 
pupils, who had never even heard the name 
of our God. The first lesson I gave them was 
on the fact that each child was one individual 
soul. They had never heard the word soul 
before. By steady, slow steps we got them to 
understand a little of God's love for them." 

One government officer, on leaving his boy 
at a Methodist day school, said to him : " This 
is the best school in the city. You must 
remember that these Christians are different 
from the rest of the Chinese. When they 
teach the Bible and the facts about their reli- 
gion, I want you to give special attention, so 
that you may learn what it is that makes 
them different." 

Orphanage. — Through the years the " Jen- Jennie 
nie Ford Home" has sheltered with tender £ ord 
care from thirteen to twenty girls at a time, 
some just infants. A few have early passed 
away, owing to inherited disease and 
enfeebled constitutions through previous 
neglect and exposure. The majority, how- 
ever, have developed healthily in body and 
mind and, better still, have become true dis- 
ciples of the Lord Jesus. Two or three have 
married evangelists and are showing in their 
own homes and churches the good results of 
their training. Those old enough have, as 
day pupils, attended classes in the boarding- 
school, but in 1915 the Orphanage was placed 

189 



China 

under the management and direction of the 
school workers rather than as a distinct 
department. " Under these circumstances the 
girls are in the position of supported school 
girls." 

" The removal of the medical department 
from our compound," writes Miss Thompson, 
"gave the Orphanage the use of a building 
and some additional land space. This has 
been very much appreciated and has made a 
great difference in the dormitory problem. 
Another of the older girls has been received 
into the Church. Now, with the two oldest 
girls Christians, one of whom is an especially 
earnest little follower of the Master, we hope 
and pray that all these children, who are so 
peculiarly dependent on us, may learn the 
way of life." 

Women's Schools. 

The desire of grown women for instruction, 
and their great need of it, seems pathetic in 
contrast with our highly-favored conditions, 
and more or less provision has been made to 
meet this need. In 1907 we find "a little 
school for women was opened in some rented 
rooms in April, continuing for six weeks, and 
was fairly satisfactory, but there were diffi- 
culties, such as some tiny crying babies, who 
disturbed the peace very often." 
Schools for " The church members from the surround- 
Women. - n g towns an( j district are themselves enquir- 

190 



Chengtu 

ing if we will not let their wives come in and 
study, and the women are eager to come. 
Words fail to carry to you the great cry that 
goes up from this little corner of China (Jen- 
show), from its women to our women, and 
surely the young women of Canadian Meth- 
odism will hear and, hearing, will respond." 

The following is shown in 1910: 

" Only a few of our women had arrived 
when we re-opened our \ Woman's School ' 
early last September. The weather was still 
very hot, and those living at a distance waited 
for a few days, hoping for a drop in the tem- 
perature. During the term eight women and 
one girl have been with us as boarders and 
three women as day students. They have all 
followed our course of study for Bible-women. 
This course includes the studies in the Gos- 
pels, Old Testament history, primary hygiene, 
physiology and geography. These secular 
studies, though very elementary, are opening 
a new world to our women. To find that the 
Holy Land was not in Canada, but in the 
same continent as their beloved China, was a 
great surprise. A large portion of the time 
has been given to studies in the life of Christ 
as recorded in the Gospels of Mark and Luke. 
We believe Christ is more real to-day to our 
women than at the beginning of the term. 
Some of these women will, we hope, become 
workers in the near future ; others will return 

191 



China 

to their homes, there to witness for the 
Master. One is the wife of an evangelist, 
and will probably go with her husband to one 
of our out-stations after Council meeting. 
Another was the bride-to-be of one of our 
church members." 

Further advance is witnessed in 1914: 
" On September 1st we opened our Woman's 
School. Most of our former students were 
present ; also several new ones. Thirty women 
have enrolled this year. Several have been 
with us only part of the time, but some have 
attended regularly. We could accommodate 
only ten women as boarders, as our building 
is so small. Some of our day students have 
walked a long distance each day. They have 
also shown great earnestness in their studies. 
Last year it was decided to have our women 
pass examinations, and at the completion of 
the two years' course give a certificate. This 
was something new, and at first we feared 
our women would not take kindly to such an 
innovation, but we were mistaken. All have 
been ambitions to take high marks, and real 
good, painstaking work has been done. 

" Mrs. Chen, who entered the school when 
it was first opened, received a certificate this 
year. We hope for more next year." 

Added joy comes in 1910 : 
" This past year has been the most eventful 
in the history of our Woman's School, for we 

192 



Chengtu 

have experienced the joy long anticipated of 
moving from cramped and unsuitable quar- 
ters to our new and commodious building. 
When we say 'new/ we are not forgetting 
that this building has been used as our 
Woman's Hospital for over twenty years, but 
it is new to us. Some necessary alterations 
and a coat of paint have transformed our old 
hospital into a Woman's School which we 
think is almost ideal. 

"We have two well-ventilated classrooms, 
fourteen cosy bedrooms, a bathroom, dining- 
room, kitchen, gymnasium and, last but not 
least, a sitting-room lighted by electricity. 

"During the year thirty-five women have 
been with us for a shorter or longer time. 
Our rules are elastic enough to admit a woman 
for one month, if she cannot remain longer. 
Five of the women have completed our two- 
year course of study, successfully passed their 
examinations and received certificates. Four 
of these plan to become Bible-women." 

Similar schools are held in all the stations 
as far as time and strength permit. Every- 
where they have been eagerly welcomed and 
have proved an immense blessing. 

Evangelists' Wives. 

Akin to this (but a distinct effort) has been Evangel- 
the teaching of the evangelists' wives. While ist8 ' Wlves - 
the husbands were taking their regular course 

13 193 



China 

of instruction the wives (many of whom have 
had no educational advantages) have been 
brought together and a more or less regular 
school has been maintained, to their great 
advantage personally and their increased use- 
fulness in the Church. 

Some seasons our W.M.S., on request of 
the Council of the General Board, has taken 
charge. At other times some of the wives of 
the missionaries have superintended. The 
results already have proved very satisfactory, 
but for the sake of continuity and consequent 
efficiency the persuasion grew that a stated 
teacher should be engaged by the General 
Board, and in 1916 the Board of the W.M.S. 
offered and appropriated $600 towards her 
salary. 

Showing the need of instruction and the 
joy of seeing the darkness dissipated by the 
true Light, we quote from a letter of Miss 
Steele : 

" The other day a woman called to ask 
some questions. She had been to church two 
or three times, and there were some things 
she could not understand. She wished to 
know if the worship of God was like that of 
Buddha; if the worshippers presented them- 
selves before Him wearing their best clothing 
and their jewelry. One had been beating 
time, during the singing of the hymns, and 
the old lady wanted to know if he were 

194 



Chengtu 

trying to beat the doctrine into their minds. 
But the listening women could scarce sup- 
press a smile when she inquired into the 
reason for the worshippers bowing their heads 
and going to sleep for a short time during the 
service. The word for prayer could convey 
no meaning to the stranger. The mission- 
aries have had to take a word and teach the 
Chinese to read our meaning into it. So it 
is no marvel if the women are frequently 
puzzled when they first come in contact with 
us. We pray that this one may speedily learn 
to sit at the feet of the Master who can teach 
her so much of Himself. 

"So is the seed being sown in this city. 
While there is much definite planting and 
watering, there is also much wayside sowing, 
and in both cases God gives the increase. The 
harvest is plenteous, and there is every 
encouragement to work and to pray. In more 
senses than one, the day of salvation in China 



And again: 

" Several of the women have been going, 
two or three at a time, to small places to 
preach the Gospel, and during the warm 
weather, when there are large gatherings at 
the temples, they go in little companies to tell 
the Gospel and distribute tracts. 

" There is an old lady, about sixty years of j ans l C( j 
age, by the name of Mrs. Chang (we always to Christ. 

195 



China 

call her ' the Dame '). She was a vegetarian, 
and had been for twenty years. (In taking 
the vegetarian vow, the devotee absolutely 
trusts in it for salvation. Vegetarianism has 
more superstition connected with it than have 
other forms of idolatry.) She came to do a 
little needlework and to live with us. She 
could read a little, so every evening she, with 
two or three others, would sit and read the 
Bible. After three months she was led by 
reading God's Word to know that Jesus is 
the Way, the Truth and the Life. She gave 
herself to the Lord, broke her vow, and was 
baptized. Her life has been a sweet savor of 
Christ ever since. She had a very serious ill- 
ness last winter, and as we were afraid she 
might not recover we suggested that she go 
home to her friends. 'No/ she said, ' if Jesus 
is going to take me home, I want to go from 
the place where I first learned to know Him.' 
We are very thankful that she recovered. 
Three months ago we appointed her to accom- 
pany one of the senior primary school girls 
who had to enter Dr. Cox's hospital for 
three months' treatment, and Mrs. Cox has 
said that it was remarkable to see the old lady 
going from one patient to another, with Bible 
in hand, reading to them, and trying to point 
them to the way of life. Her face bears wit- 
ness that she has a joy and peace in her heart 
that the world cannot give, neither can it take 
away. 

196 



Chengtu 

" There is also with us a young lady by 
the name of Miss Ts'ao. She came to pay a 
visit for a month, at the end of which time 
we invited her to stay longer. She gladly 
accepted, and did much in teaching Mrs. 
Chang, the old lady to whom we have just 
referred. They read the Bible every even- 
ing, and after some time she came to me one 
night and said, ' I am convinced that Jesus 
Christ is the Saviour of the world. Will you 
point me to him V One passage after another 
of God's Word was read, and through John 
5: 24 she was led into the Light. We had 
prayer together, and from then her life has 
borne testimony to the power of our living 
Lord. She also was under this awful vow 
(the vegetarian). We prayed constantly, and 
asked many friends to pray that she might 
break it, but nothing would persuade her 
until a short time ago. One morning we 
noticed she was exceedingly happy, but did 
not know the reason until later on when she 
came and said her decision was made, she- 
would break her vow, and now she was going 
to wholly follow the Lord." 

After a season of rest and recuperation in Revolution, 
the mountains, above the enervating heat of 
the plain, our missionaries were returning to 
their various posts in the late summer of 
1911, eager for the reopening of schools, hos- 
pital and other activities, when suddenly a 
deep shadow fell. 

197 



China 

The London Christian says : 

" For years China has been like a glacier, 
moving slowly, surely but imperceptibly; 
to-day she is like an avalanche. The success 
of the revolutionary movement is nothing 
short of astounding. City after city quietly 
capitulates; and concessions have already 
been made from the throne, which point to 
great changes affecting popular rights and 
liberties. When we remember the greatness 
of China's provinces — Szechwan, with sixty- 
eight millions of people, and Shantung, with 
thirty-eight millions — it is clear that such 
provinces are well worthy to be states; and 
if it is possible to compact the whole under 
one supervising government, the progress of 
China, and therefore the progress of the world 
— and (may we not say) the progress of the 
Kingdom of Christ — should be enormously 
advanced." 

From Miss Brackbill, writing of Chengtu, 
we learn: 

" On August 24th we opened the school 
after the summer holidays with all pupils 
from a distance there, and a better attendance 
and better work from the first than ever 
before, and we looked forward to a good 
term's work. However, such was not to be 
the case. 

" On August 31st we attended a meeting, 
held at Si-Shen-tsi (General Board coni- 

198 



Chengtu 



pound), at which it was decided, on advice 
from the Consul-General, that many leave for 
down river because of the anticipated trouble. 
None of the government schools had opened, 
which looked ominous, and, on consultation, 
we decided it was wise to close our girls' 
school for a time for fear of drawing atten- 
tion to it in the present state of the city. The 
teachers agreed it was a wise thing to do, as 
otherwise we might have a notice in the daily 
papers (which by this time were publishing 
all sorts of cartoons) of its being still open ; 
but the pupils, when told we had so decided, 
could see no reason for it, and begged they 
might continue to study, as otherwise they 
were afraid they could not pass their exam- 
inations in the winter." 

"From September 7th the foreign commun- Shelter, 
ity was, by request of the authorities, housed 
(and protected) in the uncompleted hospital 
of the General Society, where they remained 
for a time, hoping for quiet to be restored. 

" However, when it became evident that Pupils Dis- 
we must all leave, we scattered our girls, put- tnbuted - 
ting the oldest ones in the homes of the school 
teachers, who were elderly married men, and 
my two girls, Ida and Annie, with the smaller 
orphanage children in the home of my per- 
sonal teacher, who was also to finance matters 
until such time as the foreigner could return." 

An interesting glimpse of the little mis- 
199 



China 

sionary squadron retiring to the coast is given 
by Miss Turner : 

" I know you will like to know how we 
passed the month of October. September wit- 
nessed our departure from our stations, and 
November saw us on board our boats for the 
trip from Chungking to Ichang. October was 
a month of rest and quiet, and fitted us all 
better for the changes that have come and 
that still lie ahead of us. We lived quietly on 
the Chungking Hills, across the river from 
the city, and there had our regular student 
life. We were fortunate in having quite a 
number of teachers, and were able to make 
good use of them. The weather was unusu- 
ally fine for a fall in China, I believe, and we 
had some delightful climbs over the hills. The 
community prayer-meeting met each Thurs- 
day afternoon, and our own mission prayer- 
meeting was held on Sunday afternoons. 

" On October 29th, as we were assembled 
in our mission prayer-meeting, Mr. Morti- 
more asked permission to read a communica- 
tion which had just been received from the 
Acting Branch Consul, W. B. Brown, urging 
for the last time that all the refugees here go 
down river. It was what we had been expect- 
ing for some time, and hence was not the 
shock it would otherwise have been. 
En Route " We boarded our boats on November 4th, 

to Coast. an( j on November 6th began our journey 
down this great river. We are escorted by 

200 



Chengtu 

the British gunboat Widgeon, while two 
Chinese lifeboats bring up the rear. Our 
flotilla is said to consist of thirty-four boats, 
of which thirteen are occupied by Canadian 
Methodist missionaries. 

" It would be interesting to have a list of Different 
our fellow passengers down the Yangtse. As ^ e a s tlonah ' 
one looks down on the flotilla lying at anchor 
one can discern the red sun on the white 
ground that marks a Japanese boat ; the red, 
white and blue vertically striped flag of the 
French; the red, white and black horizontal 
bars of the German houseboats ; here flies the 
Union Jack and there the Stars and Stripes. 
A large boat, flying the sun and dragon, 
anchors with us each night. The Missions 
represented are the China Inland Mission, 
the Bible Society, the American Baptist, the 
Methodist Episcopal and our own Mission. 
The others are business people, some of whom 
are agents of the British American Tobacco 
Co., who speak of leaving " their work," as if 
the introduction of the cigarette habit were 
one of the most important duties of mankind. 

" It is' hardly a year since we reached the 
Celestial Empire, and it is a source of great 
regret to us all that we have to withdraw for 
a time from our own province, which, though 
our residence in it has been for such a short 
time, we have come to love. In a very few 
days now we shall reach Ichang, where we 
expect to find steamers in waiting to convey 

201 



China 

us to Shanghai. November 29th is the 
anniversary of our arrival there." 

In these days of terrible war and frightful 
carnage (1916) we cannot but read with 
added interest and more vivid perception the 
experiences of our medical staff on their way 
to Kuling, a health resort some distance west 
of Shanghai. Hankow is a large, progressive 
city at the junction of a river from the north 
with the mighty Yangtse. On the opposite 
shore of the smaller river is Hanyang, while 
on the other shore of the Yangtse is Wuchang 
— three cities in a cluster, about six hundred 
miles from the sea. The following narrative 
is from the pen of Miss Asson : 

Red Cross " Red Cross Work. — While on the way 
Work. f rom Chungking to Shanghai last November 

our W.M.S. party was obliged to stay over 
in Hankow, and saw for the first time the 
ravages of war. The native city lay in ruins, 
and during that night one of the fiercest 
battles that had taken place was fought. 

" Churches, warehouses and many other 
buildings were converted into temporary hos- 
pitals, and the wounded, both Imperialist and 
Revolutionary, were alike cared for by the 
corps of Red Cross workers in Hankow. 

" A local Red Cross Society had been 
formed by the missionaries in Hankow and 
Hanyang at the beginning of the war in Octo- 
ber, and later their forces were strengthened 

202 



Chenglu 

by workers from the Chinese and Japanese 
Eed Cross Societies. 

" It was at first suggested that Dr. Anna 
Henry, with Dr. Barry and Miss Crawford, 
should proceed to Hanyang and reopen the 
hospital belonging to the American Bap- 
tist Missionary Society, but after a meeting 
of the Eed Cross workers it was thought 
unwise, as a big battle was expected, and we 
left Hankow very much disappointed. 

" God's ways are not our ways, and He 
who knoweth all things stopped the way. 

" On Friday of that week the expected Fighting at 
battle took place, and during the day twenty Hankow- 
shells burst inside the hospital building, and 
very thankful we were that work was not 
being carried on. 

u The next day a telegram came to Kuling 
asking that Dr. Henry and I return to 
Hankow. We did so, and were met by Dr. 
Cox and escorted across the river to Wuchang, 
and after about two miles of chair riding 
reached our destination. 

" The beautiful university building belong- 
ing -to the Wesleyan Methodist Society of 
England had been .opened for emergency 
work, and splendidly located it was, half a 
mile beyond the city, yet near enough for the 
wounded to be carried by the field corps of 
Red Cross soldiers. 

"For the first few days after our arrival 
the noise of shot and shell was heard, and the 

203 



China 



In 1916 
President 
of Repub- 
lic of 
China. 



flames from General Li's yamen, which was 
set on fire by the Imperialists, were seen quite 
distinctly from the hospital. Many wounded 
were brought in — as many as forty and fifty 
a day. 

" The patients were first carried into a 
large receiving room, and, after examination, 
the light cases and those who did not need 
immediate operation, were allotted to differ- 
ent wards, while the urgent cases were 
attended to as soon as possible. 

" There were five large wards containing 
from twenty to thirty beds, and three small 
ones with ten beds in each, operating, dress- 
ing, bandage rooms and a large chapel. The 
soldiers were, without exception, most appre- 
ciative of the attention given and, on the 
whole, patient and uncomplaining — anxious 
to recover as quickly as possible so that they 
might return to fight for their liberty. 

" There were only Revolutionary soldiers at 
Wuchang, it being the headquarters of Gen- 
eral Li and his staff, and one day we were 
honored by a visit from the General, who 
thanked the doctors and nurses for their 
kindness to his poor men, and the next day 
sent five thousand dollars toward the Red 
Cross work. 

" The staff consisted of three doctors — two 
foreign, one Japanese — and three Chinese 
lady nurses, and ten students from the Red 
Cross College in Shanghai. For the first few 



204 



Chengtu 

days it was my pleasure to assist Dr. Henry 
in her operations and dressings, and after- 
wards, when one of the foreign nurses had 
to leave, I had charge of the wards, and it 
was then my work to superintend the clean- 
ing, etc., see that the patients' dressings were 
changed, and feed with condensed milk or 
rice gruel those who could not take rice and 
vegetables. There were between twenty and 
thirty who had to be fed five or six times a 
day, and it used to take about an hour each 
time to feed 'my babies,' as I called them, 
speaking a word of encouragement to this 
one, or of help and cheer to that one, and it 
is with feelings of pleasure that I look back 
upon the month's work at Wuchang. 

" Every morning Mr. Kattenbury, who had 
charge of the University, would visit the 
wards, distributing books and tracts, talking 
to the men, and many were found who were 
already Christians or knew about the Gospel. 

"On Sunday, when services were held in The 
the chapel, invitation was given to all to come H e °" n th g 
— no one was urged — and about seventy-five Gospel, 
were present. In they came, with bandaged 
arms, legs and heads, some walking, others 
hobbling with the aid of sticks and benches ; 
still others were carried by comrades less dis- 
abled than themselves. It was an inspiration 
to watch them, as they listened attentively to 
the simple Gospel message. 

" Two services were held each Sabbath, and 

205 



China 

were well attended. We were most sorry 
when, on December 23rd, word came that hos- 
tilities were to be renewed, after an armistice 
of three weeks, and it was impossible to 
remain longer, the hospital being in direct 
firing line. The helpless patients were sent 
over to the International Hospital at Han- 
kow, which was well manned by workers. 

" We feel sure that the seed sown will bear 
fruit for the Master, and are thankful for the 
privilege of ministering to these needy ones 
in His name." 

Furloughs. During this enforced absence it was thought 
best for those of our missionaries whose fur- 
lough time was approaching to take this 
opportunity of returning to Canada; others 
settled down to study in Shanghai; a few 
went over to Japan. All sought to make it a 
time of preparation for increased power in 
service when permitted to resume their loved 
labor. 

A few sidelights given at this time should 
prove an inspiration and stimulus to us at 
home. Miss Sparling writes from Shanghai. 
December 17th: 

" We feel these days must be a time of 
trial to you ' on the banks of the Besor,' but 
God is certainly leading on, and we feel 
assured that all this trouble and turmoil will 
eventually tend to the furtherance of the Gos- 

206 



Chengtu 

pel. Indeed we have evidences of this 
already. 

"A few of the missionaries remained in 
Nanking. Heavy fighting was expected there. 
When the Revolutionists at last attacked the 
city they obtained the victory in a very few 
days, saving great loss of life and property. 
The business men of the city expected the 
Imperial troops would take a much firmer 
stand than they did against the enemy and 
thus cause much bloodshed. Events happen- 
ing so differently, they felt it must be in 
answer to the prayers of missionaries. The 
official class and business men, who hereto- 
fore have been so hard to reach, flocked to the 
chapels to hear the Gospel. The front doors 
of the chapel were taken off in order that 
more might hear the message. Although in 
the midst of trouble, there is much joy in 
that city. 

" There is still another reason why we think 
this disturbance will work out to the advance 
of the Gospel. Before leaving Tzeliutsing 
many meetings were held, addressed by lead- 
ing men of the city, who told the people that 
the foreigners had nothing to do with this dis- 
turbance, but that we were here to preach a 
doctrine that helped people to live better lives. 
We feel that this brought our work before the 
people in such a way as would otherwise have 
required years. The gentry feared the people 
would associate the trouble with us, and they 

207 



China 

might destroy our property and thus compli- 
cate matters. So far as we know no mission 
property has been destroyed. 

" We do hope this war will soon be at an 
end. Even if it should be, we fear it will 
still be several months before we would dare 
travel to our stations, as the country is 
infested with bands of robbers. We are put- 
ting in long hours of study, hoping to be 
better prepared for our work when we do 
return. 

" May God richly bless the laborers in the 
homeland." 

From Miss Estabrook's letter of December 
17th, 1911, on the journey from Chengtu, we 
take the following : 

" You have heard that on September 6 we 
were ordered to leave our homes and move 
into the hospital compound at Si Shen Tsi. 
Again, by the order of the British Consul, we 
left the walls of that compound on December 
9th, and started this journey. 

" From the pens of more experienced mis- 
sionaries than I, you will receive detailed 
accounts of events in the agitation of the 
Eailway League here and in the revolution 
movement in Szechwan province. However, 
interwoven with the work of your representa- 
tive missionaries here were certain incidents 
that impressed me. They happened aside 
from the strife and were in strange contrast 
to it all. 

208 



Chengtu 

" Tuesday, September 19th, Nien Fu Chen, Trium- 
one of the sixteen-year-old boarding-school Passing 
girls, died. Her best-loved home on this earth of a Pupil 
had been Chengtu School, and there she had of Chengtu 
learned to love and to serve Jesus. During 
!N*ien Fu Chen's illness, Miss Brackbill had 
her removed from the place, secured when 
the school had been so hastily closed, and 
placed here in even more comfortable quar- 
ters. In Miss Wellwood she had the services 
of a trained nurse, and in Dr. Betta Xilborn 
the services of a doctor. Thus loving hearts 
were with her. It seemed sad to think that 
no foreigner could be permitted to go outside 
the city to the Mission cemetery on the day 
of the funeral. However, Bev. Jas. Neave 
conducted a simple service at the house, and 
then the Chinese evangelist went out to the 
cemetery. 

"What had not the Chengtu Boarding- 
School, with all its helpful and sweet influ- 
ences, meant to her ! Let us remember, too, 
that the influence of a sixteen-year-old Chin- 
ese girl and a true Christian is no small thing 
to measure. 

"Sunday, October 15th, witnessed a most Baptisms 
impressive service in the Chengtu church. xfconMow 
The Chinese evangelist preached, and four Times. 
Chinese men, one Chinese boy, and two Chin- 
ese women were baptized by Bev. J. Neave, 
and received into the church. Among the 
four men was the father of the lad who was 

14 209 



China 

received. One of the two women was Heh 
T'ai T'ai, a woman whose husband was once 
a small official. She is not the favorite wife, 
and that fact has brought sorrow into her 
experience. She is a woman of singular 
charm of manner, refined and quiet. Of the 
women studying last year in the school con- 
ducted by Miss Brimstin, Heh T'ai T'ai was 
the most promising, as regards the evident 
work of grace in her heart and life, and Miss 
Brimstin hoped to have her full service as a 
Bible-woman in connection with evangelistic 
work in Chengtu. Let us pray that this dear 
Chinese sister of ours may be a faithful wit- 
ness for Him who has called her into this 
blessed fellowship with Himself. 

"Now in a very special way the Holy 
Spirit would lay on your hearts the responsi- 
bility of the Chinese Christians and non- 
Christians left behind in your Mission's share 
of Szechwan province, the Chinese girls 
scattered to their homes from the boarding- 
schools, also the Chinese women who were 
studying in the Woman's School in Chengtu. 

"Your prayers can help to effect multi- 
plied spiritual quickenings in the hearts of 
Chinese Christians who are heads of families. 
A Christian home established and sustained 
in the midst of heathen homes is a powerful 
witness to the power of God. They will have 
many temptations in these times of disorders 

210 



Chengtu 



and confusion. Scenes of carnage and violence 
do not mark the real struggle. 

" I cannot express how keenly I realize my 
own responsibility in view of this privilege 
of being an intercessory missionary in Sze- 
chwan province, even while I have to be 
absent from that loved province of my adop- 
tion, and I pray the prayer — 'Make me a 
truer intercessory missionary for China.' ' 

Medical. 

For some time it had been evident that the 
medical work required more room and better 
equipment. Much had been accomplished 
in the breaking down of prejudice by the 
relief given to many afflicted ones, through 
unwonted kindness shown by our capable doc- 
tors and nurses, instruction imparted, intel- 
lects quickened, and in many cases spiritual 
life received through the power of the Divine 
One. Thus " Woman's Gospel Hospital " had 
abundantly vindicated its name. 

Authority was early given for the purchase 
of a new site, but it was not till 1911 that, 
after long searching and negotiation, a suit- 
able plot of about three acres was secured. 
It is most advantageously situated, not far 
from our church nor from the General Board 
Hospital, with whose staff there are the most 
pleasant relations. 

The season's work was just being resumed 
after the summer of 1911 when, to their great 

211 



Woman's 

Gospel 

Hospital. 



China 



Re-opening 
of Dis- 
pensary. 



disappointment, the shock of revolution scat- 
tered our forces and put a stop to the enter- 
prise for over a year. 

To Mrs. Dr. Gifford Kilborn we are 
indebted for the following in 1912 : 

" Medical. — Since the last report of medi- 
cal work was written, changes have come 
thick and fast to this oldest Empire. It has 
laid aside its old traditions, its old forms of 
government and become the youngest republic, 
and still happiness has not come to the people. 

Poor China, thou cravest a better day ; 

Thou must learn of the love of Christ which alone 

can set men free. 
I mourn thou art not as thou mightest be. 
But the love of God would do all for thee. ' 

"When T returned to Cheusrtu the end of 
September. 1912, in fact before I returned, 
I learned that manv enquiries were being 
made as to when the Women's Hospital would 
reopen. Drs. Henry and Austen were in 
Canada on furlough, so Miss Asson and I in 
consultation decided to reopen our women's 
medical work. 

"Dust and cobwebs were everywhere, and 
Miss Asson immediately set to work to clean 
up. On October 30th everything was in readi- 
ness and the dispensary opened, having six 
patients that day. The number has steadily 
increased, the largest number seen in one dav 
being 105 patients. We have treated all 

212 



Chengtu 

classes and conditions, from the wives of 
wealthy officials to the lowly beggar child. 

"Fifty minor and six major operations o e Ti- a! ri able 
have been performed. One of these cases was 
most interesting. About three months after 
opening the dispensary a patient with a very 
large tumor came in to consult me. I told 
her an operation was the only method of giv- 
ing relief, and advised her to come into the 
hospital at once. She said she would go and 
talk it over with her friends. We saw no 
more of her until four months later, when she 
returned and requested us to operate. By 
this time she was in a very critical condition. 
It was evident to the patient herself that 
without an operation she could not live more 
than a few days. I explained the dangers of 
the operation after this long delay, but she 
was most anxious to have it done at once. 
We made immediate preparations, and I 
invited Dr. Kilborn to perform the opera- 
tion for me, Drs. Service, Canwright and 
myself assisting. The woman weighed 213% 
pounds before operation and after operation 
93% pounds. She made an uninterrupted 
recovery, returning to her home at the end 
of a month feeling most grateful for all that 
had been done. She says she will worship 
idols no more, but will serve the one true and 
living God. During the past months we have 
had many interesting cases, but none to equal 

213 



China 

this one. I believe the tumor was one of the 
largest on record. 

" Eighty-one patients have been cared for 
in the wards. Prayers have been conducted 
in the large ward each morning by Miss 
Asson. She has also held a Sunday afternoon 
service. 

" The returns in money have been very 
satisfactory, the receipts amounting to 
$579.75 Szechwan currency. There are still 
two accounts to collect, which will place our 
income for the past few months well over 
Sze. $600 — approximately $300 Canadian 
money. Eternity alone will reveal the returns 
from suffering relieved, lives prolonged, the 
Word preached, and hearts pointed to the 
Saviour. 

" Soon after opening we were able to engage 
a Bible-woman, and she has preached faith- 
fully to the patients in the waiting-room. As 
Miss Asson has dispensed the medicines she 
has handed to each patient a tract or Scrip- 
ture portion. In the rush of seeing patients 
it is difficult to do much direct preaching; 
but words have been spoken as opportunity 
offered, and we believe that God will bless 
the seed sown. The Bible-woman invites the 
women to attend the services in the church, 
and many of them have accepted it. 

" When we re-opened we were able to 
secure the services of three old hospital 
helpers. These have done good work, par- 

214 



Chengtu 

ticularly the nurse, Miss Wu. More nurses 
are needed. Will you pray that the right 
girls may be sent to engage in this work ? 

"I am convinced there never was a time Women 
when medical work for women was so badly Needed 3 " 3 
needed as it is to-day. With changing condi- 
tions Chinese women have more freedom than 
ever before. They do not know how to use 
this freedom. They have not learned where 
the line should be drawn. It is stated that 
immorality is very much on the increase, and 
from what I have seen in the consultation 
room I believe it. Women, and women only, 
should treat women in this country, should 
train them and teach them that liberty does 
not mean license — should teach them that 
minds and bodies must be kept pure and made 
fit dwelling-places for the Holy Spirit of God. 

" Dr. Austen reached Chengtu the middle 
of May and assisted me in the medical work 
until the arrival of Dr. Henry, a couple of 
weeks later, when the whole work was handed 
over to them. 

" I am very thankful to have had the privi- 
lege of doing this work for the Master, and 
for our Woman's Missionary Society." 

We believe the time has come, as it has 
come in almost all lines of missionary 
endeavor in China, when we must specialize 
in preparing the Chinese to carry on this 
work. We need Chinese women physicians 

215 



Dispensary 
Built 1913. 



New 

Hospital. 

1915. 



China 

as well as nurses. More and more this 
becomes evident in the changing conditions 
of New China. 

As speedily as possible the new property 
was cleared of its old buildings, walls were 
built around the compound, and a dispensary 
erected, which was opened October, 1913. In 
1914 the staff was strengthened by the arrival 
of Dr. Ada Speers. 

The hopes and prayerful efforts of many 
years at length found embodiment in 1915, 
a year memorable because of the closing of 
our first dispensary and hospital and removal 
to the new quarters so liberally provided by 
the women of our Methodism. 

" The four-story building is of brick, 109 
feet long by 52 feet wide, having accommo- 
dation for sixty-five beds. There is plenty 
of ward space, with many large windows 
for light and ventilation, besides generous 
verandahs. 

" The ground floor, or basement, contains 
the laboratory, drug room, nurses' lecture 
room, dining-room, etc. 

"On the second, third and fourth stories 
are wards, public and private, the charge for 
a bed in the former being one hundred cash 
a day (about five cents) ; in the latter, which 
is well furnished, from twenty-five cents to 
one dollar. On each floor are bathrooms, 
dressing-rooms and diet kitchens. 



216 




W.M.S. HOSPITAL 
Cheng-tu. China 




DR. ANNA HENRY 
Supt. W.M.S. Hospital, Chengtu. China 



Chengtu 

" The superintendent's rooms, guest room, 
sitting-rooms and chapel are situated on the 
first floor. In addition to the wards, there 
is a suite of operating-rooms and an obstetric 
ward on the second floor, while on the third 
are an open-air ward for tubercular patients, 
a dark room for eye examination and a ward 
for opium patients. The fourth floor is 
mainly occupied by nurses in training, of 
whom there are more applicants than can be 
accommodated. One of the educational 
requirements is the grade of Senior Prim- 
ary, equivalent to entrance to the High 
School in this country. 

"On Monday, Tuesday, Thursday and 
Friday mornings out-patients are seen in the 
dispensary near the gate. Those who wish 
to sit in the t'ai t'ai guest room and be seen 
first, pay 100 cash (20 cash is equivalent to 
one cent in Canada) extra each visit. For 
private consultation, out of dispensary hours, 
the fee is 50 cash each." 

September 16th and 17th, 1915, were 
marked by the very auspicious opening and 
dedication of this building, the evidence of 
thought and prayer, of work and money from 
many hundreds in Canada. These must be 
continued to make the work permanently 
effective. We must never forget those at 
the advance posts, and new recruits must be 
ready to fill the depleted ranks. 

217 



China 

Of the eight physicians and eight trained 
nurses sent to China during these twenty-two 
years, six have married, one has died, three 
have retired and one is on furlough, leaving 
at present three doctors, of whom one is a 
language student, and two nurses. 

" Those admitted to our wards represent 
all classes of society, all kinds of diseases, 
many opium cases — one a child of twelve 
years. Special interest was awakened by the 
daughter of an official, because of her strong 
personality and winning ways, who occasion- 
ally brought some friend to the dispensary. 
Through inveterate opium smoking her par- 
ents had been reduced to poverty. The daugh- 
ter, well educated from a Chinese standpoint, 
was able to open a private school. It was a 
shock when this beautiful, cultured girl came 
and said, ' I want to come into the hospital 
to break off opium.' For the first few days 
it was a hard fight. When too ill to come to 
morning prayers she said, ' When I'm better 
I'll help you preach the Gospel to the 
patients.' One evening, as we sat talking of 
the strength that only Christ can give, she 
said, 'I am a Christian. I do believe the 
Bible, and in Jesus and in God,' and she went 
on : ' Some years ago, when my father went 
into the men's hospital to break off opium, he 
first heard the Gospel from Dr. Kilborn. 
He brought away Gospel books and read 
them. He became a believer. You know,' 

218 



Chengtu 

she said, while a smile lighted up her face, 
' I am my father's pet. We are chums. That 
is why he got me a tutor and gave me an 
education. His official duties call him away 
from home most of the time to another pro- 
vince, but when he returns to Chengtu he 
gathers us around him in the evenings and 
reads the Bible and prays. My mother 
believes, too.' What gladness this rehearsal 
brought us, proving again the promise, 'My 
word shall not return to me void.' We had 
many long ialks together. 'I have over 
twenty pupils/ she said. 'My disciples. 
Jesus had twelve. I will try and make them 
His disciples.' Dr. Henry writes: 'Oh, 
how much China's daughters need the inter- 
cessory prayers of their Canadian sisters. 
Will not those who are the Lord's remem- 
brancers give Him no rest until every heathen 
soul that comes into your hospital in West 
China accepts Christ as her personal Sav- 
iour? As we work, will you not bear the 
burden of souls in prayer V " 

Dr. Anna Henry writes : 

" The most encouraging thing to me in our 
work this year has been the case of a young 
Tai-tai named Foeng. 

"At first I was called to see her in her Body and 
home, but as her hygienic surroundings were gjjjj , 
such as to militate against her, and her dis- 
ease was far advanced, I told the family, after 

219 



China 

a few visits, there was no use sending so often 
for me, I could not cure her. 

"Ina few days the husband called to ask 
if I would take his wife into the hospital, for, 
he said, 'I hear you have a God-healing 
method in your hospital, and I would like her 
to try that, and if she dies in the hospital we 
will not blame you.' 

"With her servant she came in, and for 
some time was in a very weak condition ; then 
she began to improve gradually. As she com- 
menced to feel better she firmly believed that 
God was healing her, and listened with inter- 
est to the Gospel story, which she seemed to 
accept as would a child. Most of her leisure 
time she spent in learning to read, until, when 
able to join in the hospital service, she could 
read her verses correctly, and would ask and 
answer questions, showing she understood the 
truth. 

" When it seemed her recovery was assured, 
in the middle of the night I was called to her. 
She was suffering intensely, and it looked as 
if she might leave us after all. I asked her 
if she feared death ; she smiled very sweetly 
and said, i No, I believe in Jesus, and He will 
take care of my soul.' She rallied from this 
attack, and from that time on she made an 
uninterrupted recovery. Her pinched, wan 
face became round and full, and beamed with 
the sweet, peaceful expression of one at peace 

220 



Chengtu 



with God. Her servant woman, too, professed 
to have accepted the new faith. 

"After being with us three months, 
although her husband thought she should 
stay longer, she felt she must go. 

" With a New Testament, a hymn book and 
several tracts she went home, occasionally 
coming on dispensary days to get her medi- 
cine repeated. 'I read my Testament and 
pray every day,' she would smilingly tell us. 
Her genuineness was proven by the way in 
which she tried to lead her family to Christ. 
She came to church several times, bringing 
three or four of her sisters-in-law with her. 

" Early in June she came to see us one day, 
saying she had friends in the mountainous 
part of the country, and she was going to 
spend the hot summer with them, and would 
we let her have some Gospels and literature to 
take with her so she could tell clearly what 
it was that had come to her, making her life 
full of joy. A good parcel was soon made up, 
and as she went out, with thankful hearts we 
praised God that the 'God-healing method' 
for both body and soul had been verified in 
this child of His won from heathen darkness." 

u The early part of the past year was sad- 
dened by the sickness and death of our first 
nurse in training. Between the interval of 
her first sickness and the fatal hemorrhages 
which at last could not be controlled, we 
hoped she might be spared to us a little 

22! 



Death of 
First 
Nurse in 
Training. 



China 

longer ; but it was not the Father's will. We 
believe the influence of her beautiful Chris- 
tian life still lives, for she was ever ready to 
witness for her Lord and try to win others to 
Him. In her case we believe ' Death was the 
dropping of the flower that the fruit might 
swell.' Seven years' training in the school, 
a good musician, and a very evident love of 
and aptitude for nursing, made her all we 
could desire. We cannot understand the 
Father's reason for removing one so much 
needed, but we know the work is dearer to 
Him than to us, and ' He knows.' " 

Dr. Austen writes: 

"We have lost one of our nurses, Hong 
Bing Rhu. Personally, I cannot tell you how 
much I have missed her. I love all the girls 
very much, but she was the dearest one to me : 
having lived so long with foreigners she had 
grown to be most companionable, and we 
found in her one that promised to be so useful 
in the Master's service. 

" Few girls have more talent in presenting 
the Gospel storv than she had. and Dr. 
Henry and I had so often remarked about her 
earnestness in using opportunities among the 
hospital patients. She had very severe hemor- 
rhages, but it did not seem possible until the 
last day that the Master reallv meant to take 
her to Himself. Because of her knowledge 
of the Gospel story and true application of it 

222 



Chengtu 

to her own life, we feel we have lost a valu- 
able worker, but it has been worth while, for 
because of it also she is able to-day to enjoy 
the reward of one of our Saviour's redeemed 
ones." 

" In the hospital we have had an unusual Sight 
number of eye affections. Two cases were Restorcd - 
especially interesting — double cataracts — 
neither patient being able to walk without 
being led. When the bandages were taken 
off the first case the other patients gathered 
around to see, and when the patient looked 
at me and said, ' Oh, doctor, I see your teeth !" 
and then, ' I see the trees outside,' the others 
said to one another, 'That was what Jesus 
did ; He cured the blind ; and the patient said, 
'Yes, and I'm going to worship Him; and 
when I'm better I am going to learn to read.' 

"When able to be up she continued eager 
to learn. Sitting by the side of some who 
could read, she tried to memorize the cate- 
chism. I am hoping that when she gets her 
glasses, which have been sent for to Shanghai, 
she will learn to read, as we try to impress 
upon them that in order to serve the true God 
aright and know what He would have them 
do they must read His book. 

" The other patient came from the coun- 
try, some distance, and had never seen a 
foreigner before. When told she could not 
be cured without an operation, and that she 
must come into the hospital, she was quite 

923 



China 

uneasy. We sent her into the ward to see 
the patient mentioned above, and while there 
she asked if they really were not afraid of us, 
and did we not eat children? Could they 
really assure her that these things were not 
so? All such questioning caused consider- 
able merriment to those who heard. How- 
ever, in she came, and though at first nervous, 
she soon became very much at home, and 
went out rejoicing at being able to see, and 
saying she had a great many relatives with 
eye diseases, and she was going to tell them 
to come to us. 

"We hope and trust that while with us 
her spiritual eyesight got a view of the true 
light, and that she will be as eager in telling 
of this new light as of her own recovery of 
sight." 

Miss Marshall, of Tzeliutsing, met this 

case: 

"Have You "Last week an old lady, partially para- 
Met Him?" lyzed ^ gaid . < T have heard something about 

a great doctor named Jesus. They say He 
can cure every kind of disease. Have you 
met Him? Do you think He can cure me?' 
Then I told her the ' Old, Old Story.' " 

The year 1916 shows advance and some 
new features, marking the wonderful revolu- 
tion in feeling and attitude of the people 
towards Christian foreigners. 

224 



Chengtu 

The hospital had been built for sixty, or 
at the most sixty-five, beds. Dr. Henry 
writes : 

" We had expected that for some time to 
come the third story could be used for a 
Chinese nurses' home, but with such rapidly 
growing demands, other plans must now be 
made. An extension was decided upon. 

" But just at this time the political situa- Refugees, 
tion was ominous, and fearing looting and 
fighting, Chinese women and children, mostly 
from the higher classes, flocked to us for 
safety. Three times have we had this influx 
of refugees ranging from one hundred and 
fifty to one hundred and seventy. At one 
time forty were packed into one room. 

"This has been an excellent opportunity 
for giving the Gospel message, and as, unlike 
earlier years, many of the ladies could read, 
Gospel tracts were freely distributed and 
read. 

"Since last September, between six and 
seven thousand patients have been seen by 
Dr. Austen and Miss Smith in the dispen- 
sary. Office calls, out-door calls, and the 
many demands of the in-patient work have 
filled up the day's work. 

" Under Miss Wellwood's capable manage- 
ment the nurses in training have demon- 
strated their ability to do effective work. 

"Continue in prayer that our united 

15 225 



School for 

Nurses 



China 

efforts — yours in the homeland and ours in 
the field — may he mighty through God in the 
bringing of these people to Jesus Christ — 
China's only hope." 

Glimpses of early experiences, aims and 
methods are not only interesting but valuable. 
The following records are given by Miss 
Wellwood, who has proved such an able sec- 
retary, builder, nurse and superintendent of 
the hospital. 

Jrainmg "Nurses' Training School — Nurses we 

have had in our Chengtu Hospital for the 
last seven years, but it was not until after 
the opening of our new hospital last fall that 
it assumed the dignity worthy to be called a 
'Training School for Nurses.' One nurse 
who has been with us during these years, and 
another who had two years with us during 
the days of many changes and makeshift, 
proved themselves valuable helpers when we 
came to adjust things in our new hospital 
and put our training school upon a firmer and 
better basis. Miss Uh, our oldest nurse, 
came to us with little or no education, but 
during these years has faithfully and untir- 
ingly plodded on with her books and practical 
work, until we feel she has reached a degree 
of efficiency in her practical work quite 
worthy to be considered a graduate, although 
her theoretical work has not reached the 
standard set as our aim. 

226 



Chengtu 

"We now require students to be graduates 
of Higher Primary or about the equivalent 
of entrance to High School at home. We set 
this standard with some fears, but many 
months ago those fears vanished, and it is 
most satisfying to see how the attitude toward 
caring for the sick is changing from one of 
menial to one of dignified service for human- 
ity. Much credit is due Miss Uh in help- 
ing to bring about this change, for amid 
continual taunts along that line she has been 
able to see beyond their narrow vision and 
feel its true value in her own life, thus mak- 
ing it easier for others who followed. 

"During the year that is just closing we 
have had six students. Miss Smith has 
taught them practical work in dispensary 
and operating-room, as well as teaching bac- 
teriology and English. Dr. Austen has 
assisted by teaching physiology, while the 
practical work of the wards, as well as teach- 
ing * Theory and Practice of Nursing,' has 
been my privilege. We are aiming at the 
course adopted by the Nurses' Association 
of China, and with pupils coming to us who 
are Higher Primary graduates, feel we 
should have no difficulty in accomplishing it. 
True, we cannot think of these nurses as 
assuming the same responsibility that nurses 
will at home, and lacking any home training 
that would prepare them for hospital cleanli- 

227 



China 



Nurses' 
Prayer 
Meeting. 



ness and order, they have many lessons to 
learn that a nnrse would instinctively know 
at home. Although eternal vigilance has 
been necessary, it has not been without its 
reward, and we believe that as the years go 
by these things will grow easier. 

"The nurses are all Christians and have 
helped as time would permit in teaching the 
patients in the ward. Among the bright spots 
during the year has been our nurses' prayer- 
meeting each Monday evening, when they 
gathered around my desk in my study, for 
Bible study and prayer. The first half-hour 
we spent in free discussion of some subject 
previously selected, and it has been most 
pleasing to see the development of ideas in 
the lives of these young Christians. The last 
half-hour we have talked over their experi- 
ences in personal work with the patients and 
mentioned those whom we especially wanted 
to remember in prayer. In this way we also 
follow up those who have gone to their homes 
and who have shown a special interest in the 
Gospel while with us. 

"Thus we launch our 'Training School ' 
with a prayer that it may prove a genuine 
power in preparing some of China's young 
womanhood for a worthy place in the uplift- 
ing of her home life and making them strong 
in service for the Master, who came not to be 
ministered unto but to minister." 



228 



Chengtu 

Normal School. 

For years the need of trained native teach- Union 
ers for the many schools under our care had Christian 
been painfully felt. Of the few that could gSS, 
be obtained, scarcely any were Christians. 191 5. 

To establish a Normal School was rather a 
heavy undertaking for any single denomina- 
tion, and the pupils from each mission, far 
enough advanced, were as yet few in num- 
ber, so after considerable negotiation a 
Union Christian Normal School for Girls 
was resolved upon. Then came a prolonged 
search for a suitable site, resulting in a very 
desirable property being secured. After com- 
plete renovation of the buildings, the school 
was opened, January 11th, 1915. Our 
Society had the honor of providing the first 
Principal, Miss Alice L. Estabrook, who was 
eminently fitted for the position. To give 
an idea of the aim and scope of this enter- 
prise we cannot do better than append her 
first report. 

" Union Normal School for Young Women. 
— ' They shall abundantly utter the memory 
of thy great goodness; they shall speak of 
the glory of thy kingdom and talk of thy 
power.' (Psalm 145.) 

" This Chengtu Union Normal School for 
Young Women is the first institution of its 
kind in West China. For some years it has 
been in the desire and prayerful plans of 

229 



China 

some of the missionaries of wide experience 
here. Now they see it as an established fact. 

" Appointed last year by Council to the 
staff of the school, I was later appointed by 
the Union Committee of Management to be 
Principal of the school. Let me, at the very 
outset, say that in Miss Irene Chambers, of 
the American Baptist Mission, I have found 
a friend of helpful personality and a col- 
league of excellent teaching ability and 
influence among the students. 

" School opened in January, 1915. Four- 
teen students have completed the work of this 
first half-year. They represent Missions as 
follows: Methodist Episcopal, two; Friends' 
Mission, four; and our Canadian Methodist 
Mission, eight. The largest of the two girls' 
boarding-schools of the Baptist Mission tell 
us they expect to send us a student in Sep- 
tember of this year. The students now repre- 
sent seven different boarding-schools and six 
cities of the province, the most eastern 
city being Chungking. Each student is a 
Christian. 

" The subjects in the regular time-table for 
this half-year have been : Principles of Teach- 
ing and General Method, School Manage- 
ment, Psychology, Calisthenics, Chinese Lit- 
erature and Essay-writing, English (optional 
and for those who have previously studied 
and who wish to keep it up for future work), 
a course in Bible study and also one in 

280 



Chengtu 

Studies in Christian Service, and Special 
Method in all the subjects of their practice 
teaching. These have been their subjects of 
study. They have also done, under supervi- 
sion, regular practice-teaching in the Junior 
Primary day school in these subjects : Chin- 
ese Literature, Arithmetic, Geography, 
Hand-work, Physiology, Ethical readers, and 
Calisthenics. 

"Next term, in addition to the study 
courses mentioned, we shall have two more: 
Telling of stories to Primary pupils, and 
School and Home Science. In the latter 
course, the up-to-date text-book will be supple- 
mented by a course of ten demonstration 
classes given by Miss Wellwood in the new 
hospital of our Woman's Missionary Society. 
The hospital compound is just across the 
street from the Normal School property. 

"As the students began their Normal 
training course — to them an entirely new 
department — we endeavored to lead them to 
put themselves freely into their work and 
free themselves from the hindrance of fear 
of criticism, harmful self-consciousness, de- 
lays in carrying thought over into action, fear 
of advancing original thought, and fear of 
getting away from the written page of the 
text-book. 

" Chinese young women need to recognize 
the difference between moods and judgments. 
They also need to learn that a wonderful 

231 



China 

power of memorization does not mean a won- 
derful power of comprehension or executive 
ability. Therefore, to a greater degree than 
with Canadian students of the same age at 
home in a teacher-training course, we have 
stressed such points as these: to summarize 
lucidly a discussion on a subject ; to compare 
text-books on the same subject in the Public 
School course and to judge both defects and 
estimable points; to imagine practical school 
problems and decide how to meet them; to 
make out workable time-tables for a Public 
School ; to prepare examination questions on 
the course they taught. 

" By these things we have tried to build up 
constructive powers and a sense of values. We 
believe that good beginnings have been made 
in all these points and a good foundation laid 
for the next half-year. I think each student 
has sought to give a whole-hearted character 
to her work and to know the invigoration 
thereof. 

" At the beginning of the term, I told the 
class that, aside from the subjects written on 
their time-table, we would emphasize in their 
life two other subjects, viz. : self-control and 
the manifestation of an earnest spirit in 
Christian service. I believe each student has 
prayerfully sought to keep these ideals before 
her. There has been a healthy spirit of 
co-operation and mutual enjoyment shown in 
the student life among themselves. In ser- 

232 



Chengtu 

vice, each girl has taken definite teaching 
work, either in the Beginners' Sunday school 
or in the regular Sunday school. Each week 
I met the two classes and together we studied 
the best methods of presenting the lesson and 
of reviewing the truths taught. 

"Beginning last March our students are 
to be responsible for one meeting a month, 
giving the Gospel talk at the Sunday after- 
noon service in the chapel of our Woman's 
Society's new hospital. 

" Next September we expect to have a new 
class of at least four students enroll with us. 

" We pray that these students now with us, 
and also those coming to us, may ever know 
the rich streams of joy in service, joy that 
comes from the heart of Christ Himself. He 
has in His hand great opportunities for them, 
as they go out trained to lead in the paths of 
true knowledge and to scatter the brightness 
of life. Pray for them. You can help by 
your prayers. God has willed it so. 

"To God we give the praise for all, and 
in the further development of the work we 
place our reliance in Him. i Not by might, 
nor by power, but by my Spirit, saith the 
Lord. ,,, 

In 1916, on the retirement of Miss Esta- 
brook, Miss Chambers became the Principal. 



288 



CHAPTEK XIX. 

KIATING. 
(Pronounced Jah-din. Population, 70,000.) 

OUK second station, Kiating, is situated 
at the junction of the rivers Min and 
Tung, about one hundred and twenty miles 
south of Chentu, the capital of the Province. 
A few miles west of the city is Mount Omei, 
sacred to Buddha, possessing many large 
monasteries, and annually attracting thou- 
sands of pilgrims from China and Thibet. 

The year 1908 brings the following gratify- 
ing intelligence of progress : 

Kiating " Kiating is very glad indeed to report a 

loo?*' l ar g e > comfortable Home ready for occu- 

pancy. The good workmanship, an ideal site, 
magnificent views of river, mountain and 
dale, all combine to make this one of the 
p»most desirable Homes in West China. 
» "This Home, we think, will be a good 
advertisement for our work. Its high eleva- 
tion makes it appear prominent from the 
City Gate, City Wall, and even from the 
opposite bank of the river. Numerous 
requests for permission to look through the 
Home and stand for a while on the level 

234 




*HOME OF THE MISSIONARIES 

Kiating, China 




'Cost $2,750. 



BOARDING PUPILS 

Kiating School. 1915. 



Kiating 

part of the roof have been granted. The 
questions asked on such occasions are quite 
amusing, Why have so many chimneys ? Will 
not one stove cook all your food ? Why use 
so many rooms? Could you not cook, eat, 
sleep and study in one or two rooms, as we 
do I etc., etc. 

"We still need two guest-rooms, one for 
the use of the school and business in general, 
another for the use of the Chinese women. 
The latter we plan to make very cosy. An 
open fireplace, pictures and comfortable 
chairs, together with the necessary requisites 
for a social cup of tea, will, we hope, make 
this room very attractive to our Chinese 
sisters. 

" Upstairs a large bedroom, where we could 
entertain women coming in from our out- 
stations for a time of Bible study, would be 
very useful. These rooms, together with 
steps, drains, etc., will, we hope, complete 
the necessary work on this compound." 

The completion of this home for the mis- Outdoor 
sionaries set free the native buildings for the School. 
proper housing of the school. " Several were 
torn down and the timber used in construct- 
ing new rooms in more convenient places. 
During part of that time," Miss Steele writes, 
"my study was the verandah, while school 
was kept in the open air, a few feet away. 
The chipping of stone, with the sound of 

235 



China 

hammers and saws on every side, frequently 
made study impossible. The girls were shel- 
tered from the rain, but so exposed to the 
cold winds that we were anxious for their 
health. However, they quite enjoyed the 
experience, and often assured us they were 
having a splendid time. Now we have one 
large and two small class-rooms, sitting-room, 
dining-room, kitchen, bathroom, laundry, 
and six bedrooms, accommodation for not 
more than forty girls. 
Feet " During the year several girls have un- 

Unbound. bound their feet. They always agree to do 
so when they come, and usually set about it 
themselves, unbinding gradually. But one 
little girl refused to stay when she found she 
must unbind, so her mother came and took 
her home. The girls rejoice in their ability 
to run about so easily and quickly. They 
continue to take their Sunday afternoon 
walks, and nothing can exceed their delight 
• when in the spring they are able to gather 
their arms full of flowers. Then they some- 
times compare themselves to the children who 
carried palm branches when Jesus rode into 
Jerusalem. 

" One of the little girls, who is trying to 
follow her Lord, has one overpowering ambi- 
tion. She wishes to be a good girl ; but, above 
all else, she longs for wisdom. So she clings 
to the text, ' If any lack wisdom let him ask 
of God,' and she daily prays for wisdom, and 

236 



Kiating 

begs the other girls to pray for her that she 
may have it. She has found her studies 
rather difficult, and she has shed many tears 
over them, but apparently her prayer is being 
answered, for in a recent examination she led 
her class. May she be given the true wisdom 
which is from above, and which will fit her 
for the Lord's work. 

" To be in a large measure responsible for 
the moulding of so many young lives, each 
one different from the other, is a serious task, 
and the question may well be asked, ' Who is 
sufficient for these things V Like little Tsong 
Chin, we need wisdom, and we are glad we 
can rely upon One who is Infinite in love, as 
well as Infinite in wisdom. 

"In the beginning of April, 1912, a small gg 
day school was opened on a busy street in the 
heart of the city. We were happy to secure 
the services of a Christian teacher, and 
twenty-seven girls were enrolled. They were 
very restless, but bright and eager, and it was 
a pleasure to tell them a Bible story or to 
teach them a verse of the children's favorite 
hymn, ' Jesus loves me.' " 

The next report includes the following: 

" The downtown Day School is apparently 
the outstanding success of this half-year's 
work. This may be partially because of the 
spirit of the times, but it is also largely due 
to the teacher, Mrs. Chong. Before her mar- 

237 



School, 

1912. 



China 

riage she was pupil teacher in the Boarding 
School. The building we rented is directly 
opposite the street chapel, and in the busiest 
part of the city. Before school had been 
opened a week we were crowded, and in three 
weeks I had to use the loft and engage 
another teacher. Our roll is fifty, with an 
average attendance of forty-two. 

il The children come from the better class. 
We have daughters of officials, silk and silver 
merchants and teachers. Some of the larger 
girls can repeat whole chapters from the 
Bible, and are doing very well in foreign 
subjects for the time they have studied. 

"I have visited most of the forty homes 
represented, received a warm welcome, and 
found in many instances what seemed to be 
a real interest in the Gospel story. In some 
homes I met girls who had been in the Board- 
ing School for a short time, or women who 
had been in Miss Foster's classes. With these 
it is quite easy to find a point of contact. 
We sometimes have a little service in such 
places, the school children singing. " 

Mrs. Hockin, from Kiating, writes in 
1915: 

"Mr. Quirmbach's church in the centre 
of the city is a fine large room with a gallery 
and large class-rooms opening off it capable 
of seating six hundred people. 

"Between the church and the street, on 

238 



Kiating 

both sides of the main entrance, are guest- 
rooms, a room for games, a large lecture- 
room, and a reading and book room. The 
reading-room is already very popular, and 
here Mr. Quirmbach posts the daily tele- 
grams as they come in bringing the war news 
and other items of interest. The rooms at 
the back of the church are taken up with a 
splendid gymnasium, school-rooms and baths. 
Mr. Quirmbach's idea is to carry the work on 
somewhat along Y.M.C.A. lines. My work 
will be directly with the women in this 
church. 

"Before Mrs. Sinton's (Miss Srigley) 
marriage she had rented a compound run- 
ning at right angles to the church property, 
separated from it only by the partition wall 
but opening on another street. Here she 
opened a day school for girls under fourteen. 
Mrs. Chong, one of our former school girls, 
who was married during the Revolution to 
a farmer's son, has had charge of the day 
school. Her husband learned to read since 
his marriage, and has shown considerable 
interest in the Gospel, though his own people 
are quite antagonistic to all Christian teach- 
ing. We have also a male teacher for writ- 
ing, and some of the other Chinese subjects. 

"At the back we have two school-rooms 
which we hope to keep pretty well filled with 
girls between seven and fourteen years. In 
the front there is a fine large place for 



China 



Union 
Evangel- 
istic 

Effort for 
Women. 



women's meetings, a Chinese guest-room, and 
a large room I am fitting up as a general 
reading and class-room, where we hope girls 
in their teens may come, especially those 
from the Government schools. There we hope 
to keep Christian magazines, pictures, a few 
games, etc. I think we may he ahle to get 
quite a numher of girls for English Bihle 
classes later on. Just now the work is in its 
infancy. 

" Perhaps one of the most interesting 
things to report in connection with this year's 
work is the evangelistic campaign for women 
in which all three Missions — China Inland, 
Baptist, and our own — united this spring. A 
union committee, foreign and Chinese, met 
and planned the details. This in itself was 
very helpful. It was decided that the first 
meeting should he a Union one for the higher 
class women who are not usually willing to 
come to church. A committee waited on 
the head official's wife and were cordially 
received hy her. She promised to help us 
and to come with several of her friends, 
which she did. For this meeting special invi- 
tations were printed, and these were enclosed 
with a longer tract-letter, which was after- 
wards used generally. This tract-letter, 
clearly setting forth the plan of salvation, 
ended with a list of the weekly women's 
meetings, when and where held, and an invi- 
tation to come to the same. Besides these 



240 



Kiating 

letters a calendar of the Sundays, a small 
tract, and one or two tickets to the meetings 
were enclosed in an envelope and sent to the 
different homes. The result was that on the 
appointed night some seven hundred women 
gathered in the San Iuh Shae, the new down- 
town church, and saw the main events of the 
life of Christ thrown by the magic-lantern on 
the screen. An address of welcome and sing- 
ing by the school girls added to the interest of 
the meeting. Each woman carried home with 
her a portion of Scripture with a good col- 
ored illustration. An invitation to those 
interested to meet in our girls' school, drink 
tea, and talk was given for the following 
Thursday. Some fifty responded and we had 
a nice time with them. 

il This first meeting was followed by meet- 
ings in each of the churches, in every case 
followed by an after-meeting with the Gospel 
story retold. Some two thousand women had 
the life of Christ given to them in picture 
and story, and many more than that were 
reached by the literature. It is hoped that 
we may be able to follow up this work, in 
much the same way, later in the year. 

" During this New Year's time, especially, 
there seemed to be a revival of many of the 
old customs. The pendulum perhaps swung 
too far in one direction during the revolu- 
tion, and now there is the tendency to swing 

: 16 241 



China 

back again. However, the old times can 
never return. 
i^ii* id ° l8 "During the past month an interesting 
utterly thing has taken place on this street. The old 

pass white pagoda, which has guarded this end of 

away." the city for several hundred years, was torn 

down. It had been leaning rather badly, the 
authorities needed some money, so they sold 
the property. A few years ago a thing of 
this kind might have precipitated a riot, but 
to-day the people who had a few cash con- 
tented themselves with buying the old bricks 
at about half a cent apiece. Some of the 
bricks are very interesting, stamped with 
figures of Buddha, and pagodas with very 
clear characters. They claim some of the 
bricks date back eight or nine hundred years. 
" I am glad to say that Katharine has had 
an unbroken record of good health and that 
her pride in her * star pin ' still continues. It 
is only worn on special occasions for good 
conduct. She often says, ' Of course I can't 
be naughty when T have my star pin on. It 
has Jesus' name on it and He helps me to 
be good.' " 

This last reference is to the incident occur- 
ring at the Board meeting in 1913, on the 
eve of Mrs. Hockin's sailing for China — the 
scene of her former labors — under appoint- 
ment of our Society. We were rejoiced to 
have her as one of our representatives, and, 
as one expression of our satisfaction, the 

242 



Kiating 

ladies made the little daughter a life member 
of the Society, presenting her with the mem- 
bership pin. 

The year 1916 brings tidings of continued 
progress, necessitating enlargement of accom- 
modation; scholastic success, a few pupils 
attaining 100 per cent, on some subjects; a 
sort of self-governing body improving the 
discipline of the school ; increased interest in 
spiritual things; two taken into full church 
membership, two others baptized, several 
teaching in Sunday school, sixty or seventy 
girls at the regular church prayer-meeting ; a 
widening influence among the women of the 
city — wives of the officials and others- — 
leading to the organization of an anti-foot- 
binding society, etc. 



243 



CHAPTER XX. 



Onward 

and 

Upward. 



JENSHOW. 
(Pronounced Ren-sho.) 

ABOUT seventy miles south of Chengtu 
is our third station, Jenshow, and the 
description as given by Miss Fox will be the 
most restful method of seeing our land, which 
certainly is " beautiful for situation," and 
must be healthful. Miss Fox writes, in 1907 : 

"During the past year our property has 
changed considerably in appearance. It is 
situated on a hillside which has quite a steep 
incline, and much terracing has been neces- 
sary, that we might have level places for 
building and at least a few feet of level 
surrounding the building. 

" The wall is completed except finishing 
tiles. The gateway and servant quarters, on 
the first level, are finished, and a gateman 
duly installed. On the next level, about 
thirty feet above, stands the day school and 
guest room, which still requires a few weeks' 
work, as we have been unable to obtain bam- 
boo for the plastering. Going up another 
terrace of thirty odd feet is the boarding- 
school, ready for opening. Still up another 
terrace of over twenty feet stands our little 
house. The stone steps from the gateway 



244 



HOME AND SCHOOL 

Jenshow. China 




MISSIONARIES' HOME 
Jungrhsien. China 



Jenshow 

leading past the other buildings up to the 
house are about three-fourths up; they 
already number over a hundred and twenty." 

In 1908: 

"Still more changes are to be noticed in 
the appearance of your property in Jen- 
show. Last year, when we came back from 
our holidays, we found two of the large ter- 
races much damaged by the rains and floods 
during the summer. The drains were mostly 
destroyed and we were quite minus a back- 
yard; one end of it had slid down into the 
waterway, while the rest of it had built itself 
up on a level with the lower part of the win- 
dows of the house, by the continual sliding 
of the earth from the hill behind; conse- 
quently the rebuilding of drains and terraces 
has gone on for most of the year. We hope 
we have made things a little more secure this 
time, though we fear there will for the next 
few years be some repairs necessary after the 
summer rains, at least until the whole hill- 
side is well sodded over and trees are induced 
to grow on the terraces. Once your little hill- 
side plantation is green with grass and trees 
it will be a very beautiful spot, and the view 
out on the surrounding hills is especially fine. 

"The women as yet are very reluctant 
about coming to church, as they are in danger 
of losing the respect of their friends by 
assembling in the same congregation as the 

245 



Advertis- 
ing, 



China 

men, but receive you gladly in their own 
homes, or are glad to come to your home, for 
a few weeks' teaching, if you can accommo- 
date them. Two evangelistic workers at the 
present time could find more work than they 
could well look after, that is, including that 
of the out-stations. 

?? od _x. " ^ y ear a &°> w hH e attending Council 

Meeting, I had fifty notices printed at the 
Press and distributed throughout the Jen- 
show District. These give the date of open- 
ing, curriculum of school, and some of the 
conditions upon which we admitted pupils. 
The result has been that we have in our 
school pupils from four different towns 
besides Jenshow; our present school is 
full, but the teacher's bedroom and study 
take up some room in the building, and as 
soon as she can move elsewhere about ten 
more pupils can be added. During the year 
forty odd applications have been received, 
but more than half have been refused because 
of lack of room. 

" Our greatest opportunity and pleasure is 
in the Bible teaching in the boarding-school. 
It is so new and interesting to the pupils, and 
certainly more so to the teacher as she sees 
it worked out in their lives, and knows that 
the Lord is gaining control there, and will 
perfect the work. The Sunday after Christ- 
mas was a great day in our Jenshow church, 
when fifty-six persons were baptized, nine of 

246 



Jenshow 

them girls from our school. Two were 
baptized at the same time as their mothers. 
We believe the girls were all able to realize 
the importance of the step they were taking. 
They were very earnest and definite in their 
purpose to give their lives to the Lord. 

"It is with much thankfulness that we 
acknowledge the goodness of the Lord in let- 
ting us see such abundant results in this 
corner of His vineyard." 

Gain rather than conscience has influence 
in China, as elsewhere. 

" I wanted a Chinese teacher whose home " What 
is in this town, and who has a talent for jL l J» 
drawing, to illustrate the forty-fourth chap- 
ter of Isaiah, verses 10-17 ; but when he read 
the chapter, he said he would draw anything 
else, but not that, because he had a relative 
who makes idols for the temples, and he was 
afraid it might injure his business. Another 
man who was reported to be an artist was 
approached, and he refused because all his 
people worshipped idols, and he also feared 
to offend. A Western picture, or a drawing 
made by a Westerner, is often not intelligible 
to the Chinese, especially to the poor women, 
and so I was anxious to have the truth pre- 
sented to them through a drawing made by 
one of their own people." 

The buildings previously mentioned were 
chiefly of a Chinese character and somewhat 

247 



igio. 



China 

Home temporary, but by 1910 we find the house for 

Completed the missionaries completed. Appreciation 
appears in the following : 

" The varied activities of the work in Jen- 
show would be hard to report under separate 
headings, for in actual operation everything 
comes in one's day's work. The work on the 
new house was given up during part of July 
and August, but the workmen all came back 
early in September, and the noise of hammer 
and the buzz of saw again seemed to fill 
everything, especially the rooms we occupied 
behind the new building. But it did not 
wear on our nerves like it did in June, and 
the end was always in sight. At last we had 
the joy of moving in, and it has been a pleas- 
ure to us ever since. The house is so restful 
and homelike. We hope those who will live 
here through the years to come may find some 
of our enjoyment and may it be a home to 
them, too. 

" The boarding-school began again on Sep- 
tember 2nd after the holidays, with the same 
number of girls. Later six were added, 
making twenty-four in all. As we have only 
two not very large sleeping-rooms in the 
present school building, the girls have been 
crowded in an altogether unsanitary way, but 
that will be relieved before long by the new 
school. 

" Judging from the interest the girls take 
in their studies, and their willingness to 

248 



I Jenshow 

work, one would never think that most of 
them have been in school less than two years. 
They are so deeply appreciative of the teach- 
ing done by the foreigner that one feels 
repaid a thousand times for all the trouble 
spent on them. The only difficulty is that 
they want their foreign teacher all the time, 
dispensing with the Chinese teacher alto- 
gether, so it is much more difficult making 
them get up his work than if one could teach 
it all oneself. We do not expect the China- 
man to teach geography, arithmetic, drawing, 
hygiene, botany or music, but we have to 
depend on him entirely for the teaching of 
classics, history, and Chinese readers. 

" At the close of the year sixteen girls took 
several subjects of the examination pre- 
scribed by the Christian Educational Union 
for the Junior Primary fourth year. It is 
their first attempt, and as they have only 
been in school two years, it was certainly a 
venture, but one that promises to turn out 
even better than our expectations. 

" Just as soon as we received word that 
money was granted for a new school build- 
ing, preparations were at once begun. 
Money has been paid out for lumber, brick, 
etc., which is coming in as fast as we have 
time to measure and pay for it. The main 
building itself has not been started, but a 
small two-story brick building is being 
erected to serve as kitchen in the future, and 

249 



China 

for general school use till the large building 
is completed. We hope the day is not far 
distant when school work here can be carried 
on without the present limitations of space 
and equipment." 

Revolu- This hope was rudely dispelled by the 

tion, 1911. Revolution of 1911-12, necessitating the with- 
drawal of the missionaries, and one can form 
a little idea of the sorrow and anxiety occa- 
sioned as we read these few lines, written 
after reaching Shanghai by Miss Martha E. 
iSwann, who for years has been the efficient 
and successful Principal in Jenshow — 
architect, builder, teacher, missionary: 

" We are assured there was an advance in 
Christian character, and seldom have we seen 
such depth of feeling as was shown when we 
were compelled to leave. One mother came 
to me in great distress, and said : ' My daugh- 
ters and I cried all night for fear something 
should happen to you.' And one of the girls, 
who had been sent to some friends, came 
hurrying back, weeping as if her heart would 
break, for she had heard on the street that 
there were threats to kill us, and so she came 
to warn us and beg us to hurry away. These 
girls whom we have loved, worked and prayed 
for, we know not what may befall them, yet 
we trust, hope, and pray that the righteous 
Father will protect and keep them, and that 
they will not forget the teachings of His 
Word. 

250 



Jenshow 

"Just a word about the building: The School 
main part of the new school was up, although under* 8 
some of the doors had not been hung; we Construc- 
expected to have the school and some fifty tion. 
new desks painted when the trouble pre- 
vented. We had looked forward to enjoying 
the new class-rooms, but we fear as the tiles 
were too few to properly cover the roof the 
school may suffer from the rains. We have 
heard of the looting of our houses and know 
not if the school escaped. Plans and pre- 
parations were far-reaching: Clean, airy 
dormitories, comfortable dining-room, well 
equipped class-rooms ; all to uplift the Chin- 
ese girls physically, mentally and spiritually. 
To-night we know not what poverty, sickness, 
and danger they may be passing through ; but 
our ways are not His ways, yet 

'We dare to hope that He will make 

The rugged smooth, the doubtful plain; 
His mercy never quite forsake; 

His healing visit every realm of pain.' " 

What can better illustrate the power of 
Divine grace and the faithful training given 
by our teachers than the following ? 

" In a recent letter to the Outlook I spoke Wide- 
of the ten girls who were received into the KSSmml 
church last winter. When the girls left for 
their New Year's vacation they were im- 
pressed that they ought to witness for their 
Saviour in their homes, and to seek every 

251 



China 

opportunity to tell others the good news. 
Upon their return each had something to 
tell — one, the daughter of an evangelist, 
told of praying as she was carried home in 
her sedan chair, and how, when the chairmen 
put the chair down to rest, she told the story 
to two women who came to talk to her, and 
also how she was able to help her father teach 
the small children of the village in the Sun- 
day school. Another, who had taken tracts 
to teach the children in the village where her 
married sister lived, told of the crowds of 
children, and how she had not enough tracts 
for all, but taught them to sing the hymn 
' Jesus Loves Me.' A girl from the country 
told how she put off from day to day the tell- 
ing to her mother that she had been baptized, 
and how the longer she waited the harder it 
became, until one day she was compelled to 
speak out, and how much happier she was 
afterward. Still another, the youngest of the 
class said, 'You know when I was walking 
along the road with my father I thought, Now 
is the best time to tell him, for. I can never wor- 
ship the idols again. But/ she said, ' father is 
old, and it was hard to make him understand.' 
This child lives eighty Chinese miles away, 
and her father is one of the most gentlemanly 
Chinese men T have met, and I do hope that 
the daughter may yet be able to lead him to 
Christ. Still another child, with perhaps 
little tact, told how her sister-in-law was 

252 



Jenshow 

cursing the spirit in the stove, because the 
fire would not burn, and she just told her 
that they were always talking about a spirit 
in everything, and worshipping all sorts of 
idols, and they should know there was only 
one true Spirit and Him only should they 
worship." 

Political strife arose in 1915-16, when 
revolt against the monarchical claims of 
Yuan Shi Kai led to sanguinary conflict in 
the western provinces, followed by a period 
of lawlessness and terrorism from robber 
bands. Miss Swann says : 

" We had a very exciting day when a band 
of robbers came to our town. We awoke 
in the morning to find the soldiers had 
entrenched themselves on two high hills on 
opposite sides of our school. In firing on the 
robbers, who reached the town, the bullets 
flew past our windows, and one, passing 
through the front door, passed the length of 
the hall, through a second door, and lodged 
in the opposite wall. It was difficult to con- 
duct the morning worship, as the bullets 
repeatedly struck the wall near the class- 
room, and the girls would >ump from their 
seats. 

" The year has been one of many blessings, 
and it is with grateful hearts we praise our 
Heavenly Father, who has led us all the 
way." 



Revolt, 
1915-16. 



Under Fire. 



253 



CHAPTER XXI. 

JUNGHSIEN. 

(Pronounced Yuin-shan. Population, 30,000; 
District, 800,000.) 

NOT until 1910 was it found practicable 
to comply with the request of the Gen- 
eral Board Council to take up work in 
Junghsien, a city east by south of Kiating, 
inhabited by a people of marked friendliness. 
Seven years previously Dr. and Mrs. Smith 
had entered this place as the pioneer repre- 
sentatives of the Canadian Methodist Church. 
Among the results of their labors was a girls' 
day school, which was generously handed over 
to the Woman's Missionary Society when we 
entered the " Glory City." Very soon plans 
were being made to open a boarding-school 
on the small lot of ground already purchased. 
A temporary building was erected, which, 
with "the mud house somewhat modified," 
was considered sufficient for a time. 

It is evident that not surroundings but 
souls were paramount in the thought of the 
missionary teacher, Miss Edna Speers, who 
writes of " the deep and wordless joy of work 
among girls, Chinese not excepted. We doubt 
if girls of any country are more affectionate 
or more responsive than they are right here in 
this great empire." 

254 



Junghsien 

The fame of the Kiating School as early 
as 1907 had drawn ten girls from Junghsien 
to share in its advantages. As soon as provi- 
sion was made for their education in their 
home town, these were transferred. It is 
interesting to note the agreement made. 

" The contract used in our work here looks Form of 
to the parents for the child's supply of cloth- Contract - 
ing, books (that is, the native books), paper, 
pens, and ink; extracts the promise that in 
arranging for their daughter's marriage the 
parents shall confer with the missionary-in- 
charge, and that in default of keeping the 
girl in school till the expiration of the con- 
tract, the parents shall meet the financial 
obligation of the agreement up to the time 
of its close. In return for this, the pupil is 
to be nourished in body, mind and spirit." 

The advantage of the above stipulation 
appears in a circumstance occurring two 
years later. 

" Death claimed none of our pupils dur- 
ing the revolution, but heathen marriages 
claimed two, while still another was bound 
by a heathen engagement, which, we are 
thankful to relate, has since been satisfac- 
torily cancelled, as the fiance's family decided 
they could not wait till the girl's term of 
study had expired — a condition upon which 
we emphatically insisted. 

"There seems no doubt we returned to a 

255 



China 

changed people, and the girls of Junghsien 
form no exception. The numbers in which 
they came, and the earnestness with which 
they studied gave evidence of greater appre- 
ciation of the opportunity for so many 
months denied them. 

"Day School. — The day school opened on 
February 21st, as soon as the Chinese festivi- 
ties were over. We began with one teacher, 
but so many pupils enrolled that in March 
we engaged a second teacher. Then in May 
we engaged a third, for by this time our enrol- 
ment was over a hundred. Many of them are 
kindergarten age, and as I watch their inter- 
est in calisthenics and singing, etc., I wish 
we could give them the joys of child life that 
are enjoyed in the kindergartens of our home 
land. But even in our small school-rooms, 
with the unpedagogical teaching of a Chinese 
teacher, they are much happier than in their 
own homes, or roaming the streets, for they 
get some knowledge of their Chinese text- 
books, and in addition have the benefit of 
prayers conducted by Mrs. Batdorf each 
morning and an hour with me in the after- 
noon. 
How to « One rainy April day I went to the day 

school feeling that probably there would be 
few there, and the afternoon of little profit, 
but it proved to be a day of richest blessing. 
When I went into the highest room the girls 
surrounded me and asked me to teach them 

256 



Pray. 



Junghsien 

how to pray. They went over some formal 
phrases that they had heard the evangelists 
and Christians use, and seemed to feel that 
their petitions were imperfect because their 
expressions did not conform to those they had 
had in mind. We had an informal talk about 
prayer, and I tried to explain to them that 
as the earliest lispings of a child express ade- 
quately to a parent his need, so our Heavenly 
Father understands our needs, however 
simply we express them. 

" This formed the basis of a catechumen 
class with the older girls, and each Thursday 
after five we meet for a little prayer-meeting. 
Sometimes I take them around the city wall 
to my study, which they enjoy very much 
indeed. At other times we meet in a class- 
room. We have singing, and I have been tak- 
ing the Lord's Prayer, clause by clause, with 
them. Then an opportunity is given them to 
lead in prayer. The last meeting we had they 
seemed to wish to pray, but not to know just 
what to pray for. Several of our community 
had left for Chengtu that day to attend a Chin- 
ese Conference. Miss Speers had also left for 
the capital. I asked them if they would not 
like to ask God to give her a safe and pleasant 
journey. One pupil asked to be allowed to 
pray for this ; another said, ' Dr. Smith 
has gone ; I'll pray for him ' ; another prayed 
for our evangelist, who had accompanied 
him; a fourth reminded us that Mrs. Wang, 

17 257 



Teacher. 



China 

one of our teachers, had accompanied Miss 
Speers, and several wished to pray for her. 
Do you wonder that I felt happy as I 
returned home that night, and that it gives 
me much joy now to think of them, with 
their minds so open to the Gospel ?" 

The influence of the educational work was 
not limited to the children. An interesting 
example of the effect on one of the hoarding- 
school teachers appears in an early record : 

AValuable "Thank God, He sent us a competent 
native teacher, Mr. Chueh, a man of forty 
years or more, and a prince among teachers, 
who took such a lively parental interest in 
the welfare of the girls, both in and out of 
school hours, that what success the school has 
had in its infancy is, under God, very largely 
due to his efforts. So far as we know a non- 
Christian when he came, he, from the begin- 
ning of his stay among us, showed signs of 
drinking in the Gospel teaching. In our 
household morning devotions he would per- 
sonally pray for the girls, and finally entered 
the church as a probationer. He taught all 
the subjects on the curriculum except Bible, 
music, arithmetic, geography, drawing and 
calisthenics, and gave, besides, the drill on 
the Sunday-school lesson each Saturday 
morning." 

What better glimpse can we give of some 
phases of our evangelistic work than the fol- 

258 



Junghsien 

lowing from the pen of Miss E. Hall, who 
for so many years has labored in Junghsien 
and numerous adjacent places: 

"Evangelistic. — After returning from our 
Council meeting last winter the first thing we 
seemed bent on doing was to prepare a build- 
ing for a woman's school. Dr. Smith had 
succeeded in buying the rest of the property, 
and a woman's Bible school being very much 
needed, we set to work, but owing to a little 
difficulty arising over the very place which 
seemed most suitable, we were obliged to wait 
until such time as the difficulty might clear 
away, so decided to do some country work in 
the meantime. This work is always most 
interesting, and many results are seen from it. 

" It is wonderful how the work in different Lights in 
districts differs. For instance, in some dis- p. ark 
tricts children come in such large numbers, 
and are glad to be taught, while in another 
district the women come in goodly numbers. 
In some cases at first the women are not much 
interested, but after a time they settle down 
and are also anxious to be taught, desiring 
Bible classes to be opened. All the places 
visited are out-stations, which have been 
opened by the General Board, where services 
are occasionally held. In one place, Lo-teh- 
kin, a very interesting company of women 
gathered, among them the resident evangel- 
ist's wife, who had studied in the Bible school 
opened by Miss Brimstin in Chengtu. She 

259 



China 

was a bright little woman, but very bashful. 
However, after a few days' stay with her, and 
the women continually coming, she began to 
shine forth, and volunteered to hold a weekly 
class for the women who would attend. One 
evening while there, as her husband, the evan- 
gelist, was away from home, the people gath- 
ered in, and we had a short meeting in which 
a short talk was given on ' Jesus, the Light 
of the World.' The women were very much 
interested. The next morning, a dozen or 
more gathered quite early in the chapel, and 
as they sat there for a few moments, they 
talked together of the wonderful Light they 
had heard of the night before. After a little 
visit (it is always a good plan to sit down and 
talk a little with a company of women rather 
than at once beginning a meeting) we sang 
and had a short talk on prayer, and the 
reality of Jesus being present with us. A dear 
old lady, aged eighty-three years, listened. She 
became so interested that she began to ask 
questions. These dear women gathered 
around her, and tears came to my eyes 
when 1 heard them relating to her the simple 
message they had heard the evening before. 
They were all so interested in her and the 
message. When opportunity permitted one 
explained to her that Jesus understood our 
difficulties, and He understood us when we 
asked Him for anything and would answer 
us, and forgive all our sins, because He bore 

260 



Junghsien 



all our sins on the cross. They further 
explained to her the plan of salvation, telling 
her of the willingness of Jesus to forgive us 
our sins, and that He was the only true way 
to life everlasting. The dear old soul reached 
forth her two hands, taking mine in hers with 
such a longing look in her face; she looked 
right into my eyes and said : i Will you please 
send a message to Jesus, and tell Him right 
now that I want to be saved, and know my 
sins are forgiven.' After giving a little fur- 
ther explanation, we had a glorious prayer- 
meeting. I believe that dear old soul got a 
vision of Jesus Christ. She was from a good 
family, and could read a little. A suitable 
book was given her, and the evangelist's wife 
said she would help her a little every day. 

" One might go on and tell many interest- 
ing items that come into our lives as we go 
forth sowing the seed. Time after time the 
answer that comes from these dear people is, 
1 Oh, we never heard it before.' " 



"AMes- 
sage to 
Jesus." 



in the compara- Laborers 
Too Few 
for Chung- 



Miss Steele writes, March 10th, 1914 

"At length I am settled 
tively sunny city of Junghsien. We left 
Chungking with very real regret, having been king! 
there just long enough to obtain a glimpse of 
the need. Many avenues of work seemed to 
be open to us, and the women appeared to be 
very approachable. 

" The two girls' day schools are well filled, 

261 



China 

and some quite large girls are still attending. 
But the difference between girls trained in 
boarding-schools and those trained in day 
schools was very evident. Day schools have 
an important place, but naturally a girl in 
one of them cannot develop, spiritually, as 
fully or as rapidly as she can in a boarding- 
school, where she is constantly breathing a 
Christian atmosphere. 

" One of the pleasant features of coming to 
Junghsien, was the meeting with some of the 
schoolgirls who were formerly pupils of the 
Kiating school. It was interesting to notice 
how these girls have developed. One little 
one, in particular, is wonderfully changed. 
She was rather naughty and difficult to man- 
age. Now, having yielded herself to the 
Lord, she has become a very bright young 
Christian, whose daily life is a living witness 
to the transforming power of the Holy Spirit. 
A Vegetar- " Perhaps the one woman here who inter- 
ests me more than any other is Miss Ts'ao, a 
young girl of about twenty-two years of age, 
who was betrothed to an opium sot. In order 
that she might not be compelled to marry 
him, she took a vegetarian vow and attended 
one of their schools. The vegetarians form 
a religious sect, apparently remotely con- 
nected with Buddhism. Those who take their 
vows consider that they are thus secure in 
their hope of ultimate salvation. 

262 



ian Won. 



Junghsien 

"Miss Hall called in Miss Ts'ao's home, 
and invited her to church and to the woman's 
meetings, but she did not respond. She came 
to the house, however, to do a little needle- 
work, but would not stay lest she should be 
tempted to break her vow. A little later she 
was persuaded to come and spend a week in 
the home here. The novelty of the thing 
attracted her, and she remained to study 
Chinese characters with some of the women. 
Her conversion is better told in her own way, 
as she related it only this morning: 

" ' From when I was a child twelve years 
of age I was always looking for the right way, 
and when I met the vegetarians they told me 
theirs was the only right way. When I came 
here I watched the missionaries very closely, 
as they were in their home life, and in their 
intercourse with those who came to them, and 
I found that always they were just and right 
in their dealings. Miss Hall talked a great 
deal of Jesus Christ, and I thought He was 
her father, and also the father of all the mis- 
sionaries, and that He was a very good man, 
who sent His children here to do good deeds. 
Then I read in the Gospel of Matthew of the 
birth of Jesus, and I knew He was not the 
Father of the missionaries. In the Sunday- 
school lessons I had read of the creation of 
the world, and now I read the life of Jesus 
to find out who He was, and as I read I knew 
that He was the Son of God. Miss Hall 

263 



China 

seemed to be so happy in talking of Jesus, 
and in her hope of one day seeing Him, that 
I wanted to have this joy in my life. I was 
convinced that this was the right way. After 
several rather wakeful nights I went and 
asked her how I could know my sins were for- 
given, and she told me. Now everything is 
different. I love Jesus and I love to read 
my Bible, and I no longer worship the god- 
dess of mercy as I did formerly. I, too, have 
joy in my heart, and I know that my sins 
are forgiven.' 

" When Miss Ts'ao came to Miss Hall, they 
spent some time together, searching the Bible 
and talking over certain passages on the for- 
giveness of sins, and it was when John 5 : 24 
was quoted to her that the light came. She 
has broken with her vegetarian friends (not 
an easy task, as they did not let her go with- 
out a struggle), and is here studying the 
Bible. She is beloved by every one because 
of the sweetness and sincerity of her charac- 
ter. She has one of the sweetest faces I have 
seen. 

Betrothal " This winter a younger sister came with 

Set Aside. h er# The sister has studied quite a little 
for a Chinese girl, and is helping to teach 
the women to read. We are all earnestly 
praying that she, too, may learn to 'know 
Him.' Mr. and Mrs. Ts'ao have been most 
unfortunate in the betrothing of their daugh- 
ters. This younger sister was engaged to an 

264 



Junghsien 

idiot, but neither she nor her parents knew it 
until she went to his home in her bridal chair. 
As the betrothing of the children is done alto- 
gether by the parents, such deception is fre- 
quently practised. When this girl found she 
had been deceived, she refused to become the 
young man's wife, and returned to her own 
home. Negotiations ensued, and the engage- 
ment was broken and the girl set free. Unfor- 
tunately, not every girl has the courage or 
the family standing to be able to so assert 
herself. 

"Mrs. Chen, a dear, grandmotherly old |^ s ^ y 
lady, is brimming over with the joy of the 
Lord. She did not wish to have anything to 
do with the missionaries, but her sister-in- 
law, who was a Christian, gave her no peace 
until she consented to go to church just once. 
Then she went to call on Mrs. Smith, who 
gave her such a very urgent invitation to 
attend the services that she went again. She 
became so interested that she finally told the 
Lord that she would close her business on 
Sunday and go to church if he would make 
up the loss to her during the week. She tried 
it one Sunday, and on Monday she made 
twice as much money as she had previously 
taken in any one day. So Mrs. Chen decided 
that it was good to serve the Lord. That was 
five years ago, and Mrs. Chen with beaming 
face testifies to the continued faithfulness of 
the Master, and to the many blessings she has 

265 



China 

received at His hands. She is now bringing 
another old lady for whom she has asked us 
to pray. 

" In pitiful contrast to Mrs. Chen's happy 
countenance comes to mind the sad face of 
another Christian woman who has fallen a 
victim of the terrible opium habit. She took 
the drug because of illness. It gave her relief 
then, but now it is killing her body, as well 
as having destroyed all her joy as a Chris- 
tian. Would to God that China were com- 
pletely rid of this terrible curse !" 



266 



CHAPTER XXII. 

TZELIUTSING. 
(Pronounced Zil-yu-jin. Population, 700,000.) 

A REQUEST from the Council of the 
General Board that the Woman's 
Missionary Society take up work in three 
additional cities met a glad response. In 
November, 1910, land was purchased in 
Tzeliutsing, the greatest industrial centre of 
West China, the immense salt-well district, 
with a population of over one million people. 
" More than ten thousand tall derricks are to 
be found within a group of cities known as 
Tzeliutsing, and each of these derricks marks 
a salt well which has been bored to a depth of 
three thousand feet. This industry has been 
in progress for about three thousand years. 
The business men are enterprising and 
responsive to the new ideas of Western 
civilization. The city is really a group of 
densely populated cities, closely distributed 
over an area of about twenty-five miles long 
by four or five miles wide." 

Miss Asson thus speaks of the wells : 

"It was quite interesting to see first the Salt 
drilling and afterward watch the one-hun- Industf y- 
dred-foot bamboo pipe drawn to the surface 

267 



China 

by six water buffaloes, emptied into a tub, 
from which another bamboo tube ran under- 
ground to the building where the brine is 
boiled down by natural gas. Most of the 
population of Tzeliutsing are employed either 
at the wells or in carrying salt from Tzeliu- 
tsing to surrounding places. We were all 
impressed with the immensity of the city and 
the possibilities for work among the women 
and children. There is a fine church very 
nearly finished, and our W.M.S. property is 
nicely situated, so that when we do open the 
boarding-school the girls can go to church 
without walking far along the street. 

"Many thanks are due Kev. K. 0. and 
Mrs. Jolliffe and Eev. Geo. W. and Mrs. 
Sparling for the assistance which they so 
freely and untiringly gave in the initiation 
of the work." 

Miss Edith P. Sparling writes : 

"Not until April 3rd, 1911, was work 
begun on the mission compound, as the stone 
contractors at first asked exorbitant prices. 
Lights for " Part of the compound had formerly been 

S?iH*« te( * a g rave y ar d. Before it became mission pro- 
perty the coffins were all removed. Some of 
the graves were six or seven feet high. In 
levelling this portion of the compound many 
tons of earth had to be removed. For years 
past on September evenings there might be 
seen on the graves on this hillside the lights 

268 



Spirits. 



Tzeliutsing 

of many candles lighting the spirits of the 
departed through difficult places in their 
wanderings to and fro. Pray that this com- 
pound may now be a centre from which the 
living may be illuminated by the Gospel of 
Jesus Christ. 

" The temporary dwelling was begun on 
May 25th, and completed on July 3rd. The 
superintending of workmen hardly seems to 
be real missionary work, and yet even in this 
work there are many Opportunities to preach 
the Gospel ; showing a spirit of patience with 
their shortcomings, giving a tract here and 
a copy of the Gospel there. 

" On April 22nd a girls' day school was 
opened with an attendance of twelve. Not 
one of these girls had studied before, and yet 
within six weeks the most of them had mem- 
orized a small catechism, the Lord's Prayer, 
the Beatitudes, and several hymns; besides 
this they had studied a small book of the 
Chinese classics and the writing of Chinese 
characters. It was a privilege to visit in 
their homes, and thus have an opportunity to 
witness for Jesus. The women were very 
friendly; many of them were anxious to 
study too, and we had hoped in the fall to 
open classes for them. 

" This day school, and one which the Gen- Two Day 
eral Board opened some four years ago, are ffo^ 8 ( 
the only schools for girls in this great city. Women 
At least 250,000 are women and girls. They and Girls. 

269 



China 



Holidays 

Not 

Wanted. 



Thirty 

Boarding 

Pupils 

Under a 

Banyan 

Tree. 



have been waiting for long centuries for the 
message of Jesus Christ to them. ' The fields 
are white unto harvest, but the laborers are 
few. Pray the Lord of the harvest that he 
may send forth laborers into his harvest.' ' : 

The year 1913 finds Miss Hambley, on her 
return from furlough, stationed in Tzeliut- 
sing, and from her we receive an unusual 
view : 

" The children are so keen to learn that 
school life is a delight to them as well as to 
the teacher. About half of them already can 
read ordinary Mandarin, and we read books 
together. The only difficulty we ever had 
was in trying to close school. One day I 
wanted to give them a half-holiday and they 
wouldn't take it. The day I came away to go 
to Council meeting in Chengtu I wanted 
them to take Saturday as a holiday so that 
the Chinese teacher could get caught up with 
his work, but they begged so hard to be 
allowed to come that I gave in. They cannot 
see why holidays are necessary; they are 
having so much better time at school. 

" Besides the actual teaching during these 
four months there has been building to look 
after. There must be something more per- 
manent than a day school in the future as 
well as a more suitable place for it. So half 
the old building (said to be one hundred 
years old) was pulled down and the material 

270 



Tzeliutsing 

used in putting up another school over at one 
side under a big tree. We have one good- 
sized school-room with two rooms upstairs, 
all finished and painted ready for use. Then 
the other half of the old building will be used 
to help finish this. It will be very comfort- 
able and airy, under the big banyan tree, and 
when completed will accommodate perhaps 
thirty boarders. If there is not room inside 
they can live outside a good deal. 

" By following out this plan the main part 
of our property is left free for the permanent 
building or boarding-school, while the tem- 
porary place can be used at once for boarding 
pupils and afterwards for a day school as 
long as the old timbers will last. 

" The Tzeliutsing people have been looking 
forward to this boarding-school for some 
years, and bright, clever girls up towards 
twenty years of age have been kept by inter- 
ested fathers and mothers that they might 
have the chance of it when it does come. We 
have a splendid site, though not large enough, 
and are ready to begin any time on a board- 
ing-school large enough to measure up in some 
way to the vast population of Tzeliutsing 
with its wonderful opportunities." 

The long-cherished hope was at length ful- 
filled, but not till after some trying dis- 
appointments. 

271 



China 



Lives 
Desired 

Rather 
Than Fees. 



" On our return after the holidays (1913) 
we were quite discouraged to find the embank- 
ment had been washed away, and great stones 
had gone pounding into the temporary school 
building, which was almost completed. There 
was so much damage done that it was near 
the end of November before any rooms were 
ready for boarders. 

" In a new place like Tzeliutsing one can 
open a boarding-school on any basis desired, 
and with an entrance fee however large there 
would be no doubt about getting pupils who 
pay a certain amount. But these pupils, we 
find, are so independent and cannot be relied 
upon to stay after the novelty wears off. 
What we want is not money, but lives. We 
want girls who will be with us seven or ten 
years, capable of teaching our schools and 
willing to work for the Mission. The only 
way to do this is to take the bright, intelli- 
gent girls from the middle classes on agree- 
ment for a term of years with a moderate fee. 
We have put the fee at one thousand cash a 
month, as we find it all this class can afford 
for a girl's education. Others may come in 
on a two-year term by payment of a larger 
sum. It was this policy, carried out by Miss 
Brackbill years ago, that lias given us those 
splendid girls who have grown up in our 
Chengtu School. 

" A word, perhaps, should be added about 
the building of the new boarding-school, but 



272 



Tzeliutsing 

that will be more interesting next year. 
Building in China is hard to report, for our 
methods are so different and labor so slow, 
the people in the homeland must get impa- 
tient with it all. Since the first brick was 
laid in March, ninety days' work has been 
put in with seventy-five or one hundred men 
a day, and they have put up the brickwork 
for the central part of the building with 
joist and roof complete, but the wages paid 
wouldn't hire two men in Canada for more 
than three-quarters of that time. 

" These large gangs of human beings work- 
ing on our place day by day have not been 
left entirely outside our mission endeavor. 
The evangelist has very kindly come over on 
Saturdays and given the workmen a half- 
hour's gospel talk, to which they listen very 
attentively. Our desire is that they, too, may 
know for what they are putting up this big 
school, and something of the Divine Love 
which prompts a foreign people to build 
schools and send teachers to help their own 
daughters." 

The following attractive picture is shown 
in 1915: 

il If, instead of writing a report, I could New 
carry you all to Tzeliutsing and place you ? gJSjJL 
on the hill opposite the Woman's Missionary Completed 
Society's premises to see with your own eyes, 1915. 
you would decide that surely something has 

18 273 



China 

been accomplished during this year. The 
new bnilding looms up in its stateliness, fill- 
ing up the whole place, looking far larger 
than if it were placed in open, level ground. 
Last year at this time the roof was on just 
one section of it, a little over three months 
of work having been done. In the fall we 
were very late starting on account of the 
intense heat in September, the actual school 
work being all we could manage. Then came 
the order of the Executive of the Council to 
go to the annual educational meeting in 
Chungking, so it was the 5th of November 
before work was at last resumed. Now the 
building is practically -done except the finish- 
ing-off of the kitchen wing and the hanging 
of some doors and windows. Counting all the 
time spent on the building, there has been 
less than eleven months of actual work. 
Three or four months more of as strenuous 
work would entirely complete it. We have 
been so thankful to have the use of the bed- 
rooms in one-half of the building during the 
heat of June, not only for our own sakes but 
for the schoolgirls. Thirty-three people had 
been sleeping in the little, low upstairs of 
the old school, and the rooms in the brick 
building have been much appreciated. 

"We are very thankful to have at last 
secured the new property that Mr. JollifTe 
has worked so hard to get. It had been such 
a task inducing them to sell at a proper figure 

274 



Tzeliutsing 

that it was a night of rejoicing when the deed 
was duly signed. This will give our school- 
girls a good playground. 

"The greatest cause for gratitude at the 
close of this year is not in the completion of 
the building and our being able to use it, but 
in the fact that we have twenty-nine lovely 
girls as a real beginning of a boarding-school. 
All are in on seven-year agreements except 
some little ones for ten years, and four older 
ones, grown women really, who will study 
from two to four years and then take posi- 
tions in our schools in the district. Already 
they are farther ahead than the best women 
teachers we can secure for these out-station 
schools. In a few years we hope to be able 
to supply more and more teachers for these 
schools from our boarding-school. 

" So let us hope that all my work this year 
has not been in brick and mortar, but that 
real building has been done in the lives of 
these girls, as each individual becomes a real 
part of the boarding-school with its bright 
future of usefulness. ,, 

A most delightful change occurred after P"*: 1 ™* 1 

i j. xi i •!?• i_ « Studying 

removal to the new building, when our Discarded. 

teacher, Miss Wei, found herself in a pro- 
perly-equipped school. I asked her one day 
what she did when she wanted anything mem- 
orized ; how she did it without yelling it out 
as all Chinese do ? She said^she did not need 

275 



China 

to, and had not done it for years. I asked 
when she changed, and the answer was a 
great surprise. She said it was when I took 
them into the new school in Chengtu years 
ago. I remember being so discouraged then, 
wondering if I would ever get away from the 
old style, and now, nine years after, one of 
those girls can more easily change a whole 
school of new pupils than any efforts of mine 
could. It has been so fortunate for me in 
these busy times to have our own Chengtu 
girls to rely upon. No teacher that we could 
secure can begin to do what they can in get- 
ting new pupils to understand our standpoint 
and our standard of conducting a school.' ' 
Thus Miss Hambley writes, adding the 
encouraging item that one-third of the girls 
are from the out-stations, before whom the 
ideal is kept that they must come in and 
prepare to be teachers, so as to go back and 
teach in their own home towns. 

While schools may be more prominent 
through the buildings and the stirring life 
making them daily vocal, another form of 
effort, unobtrusive but far-reaching and emin- 
ently effective, is being carried on in all the 
stations. It is specially designated as the 
"Evangelistic." Tzeliutsing has had very 
encouraging development on this line. Miss 
Ellwood writes: 

"So rapidly has our evangelistic work 
developed, we can hardly realize that it ia 

276 







BOARDING SCHOOL 

Tzeliutsing, China 




HOME AND SCHOOL 

1 nrhnw lfhina>] 



Tzeliutsing 

less than three years since our Woman's Mis- 
sionary Society first appointed an evangelistic 
worker to the Tzeliutsing District, and when 
we do stop and think of it our hearts echo the 
Macedonian cry, ( Come over and help us.' 

" Miss Marshall had charge of the evangel- Work 
istic work until the first of March, after Jj2?L 
which I took charge of it. Upon visiting it 
one is surprised at the magnitude of the work 
one woman has built up in less than two 
years. She has opened up woman's work in 
nine out-stations. Six girls' day schools have 
been opened or have been given over to our 
charge by the General Society, while in four 
other stations where there are union boys' 
and girls' schools we have the privilege of 
teaching. She has travelled each year over 
six thousand li by sedan, and her plan has 
been to visit three stations each week, thus 
covering her whole field every three weeks. 
Besides holding services for the women in 
each station, she has taught in the different 
day schools, in which there are over two 
hundred girls. 

u These towns and cities in our district are 
rapidly growing in importance and we hope 
will become centres of strong Christian influ- 
ence in the surrounding district. To the 
north-east and north-west of the city of 
Tzeliutsing we have women's work in the 
chapels in the following places : 

277 



China 



Eagerness 
to Learn 
and to Win 
Others. 



"At Chao Teo Pu (the Big Bridge Town) 
we have a day school of about forty girls, 
besides a good women's work. The city is 
rather noted for its lawlessness and opium 
dens, but the people are very receptive to the 
Gospel message and our rooms are crowded 
to the doors with women and children. We 
have a good work among the best class of 
women at Long Tan Chang (the city of the 
Dragon Kapids), and our girls' school there 
is very promising. Lien Wha Chang (the 
Lotus Flower Town), in a beautiful dell 
away up among the hills, has such a beauti- 
ful situation that one of our missionaries 
calls it ' The Home of the Fairies/ and the 
people are as fine as the situation. There is 
a union boys' and girls' school here and a 
splendid class of women studying the Gos- 
pels. We receive such a strong welcome from 
these hardy mountain people, and they are so 
eager to learn more of the Gospel." 

Miss Marshall says : 

" One of the most encouraging features of 
this work is the readiness of the women to 
pass on what they have learned to someone 
else. 

" One day Mrs. Wei brought a little girl 
to us, saying that she could not attend school 
because she had to mind her little brother, 
but Mrs. Wei had been teaching her every 
day, and asked me to examine her in the little 

278 



Tzeliutsing 

book that we used as a primer, i First Steps 
to the Gospel.' Her recitation was perfect. 

" In another station we met a young girl 
of seventeen, Miss Salt, whose home adjoins 
the chapel. The first day she learned almost 
all the characters in the little book referred 
to above, and also in the hymn, i Jesus Loves 
Me.' She turned to the truth as a flower to 
the light. 

" We eagerly looked forward to seeing her 
again, but learned during the next visit that 
her father was much displeased with her for 
attending the meetings, and had forbidden 
her to do so again, so at every meeting she 
opens a little crack in the curtain and listens 
to every word. She is now reading in the 
Gospel of Mark. The last time a boy of 
eleven was with her. We asked her if he was 
her brother. l Oh, no/ she said, * he comes 
every day to study, and knows nearly all the 
characters that I do.' On learning what 
hymns were to be sung next day at the ser- 
vice, she taught him one of them, which she 
had already learned, holding a little Chinese 
lamp in one hand and a primer in the other 
to perform this task. We hope to get her into 
the boarding-school in the fall. 

"Another encouraging feature in our dis- 
trict is the willingness of the people to buy 
books. Over nine hundred and fifty small 
books have been sold. Often, as the chair- 

279 



China 

bearers stop to rest at some little village, the 
people gather around and want to buy books. 
" Thus the work goes on. It is in the 
pioneer stage, and we are sowing the seed. 
What will the harvest be ?" 

AChil- A delightful feature of 1916 is the inaug- 

Church uration of " a children's church, with attend- 

ance of about one hundred and ninety little 
girls, in the old hospital buildings. Rev. 11. 
O. Jolliffe is planning to bnild a children's 
church to accommodate about six or seven 
hundred boys and girls." 

It is good to hear of our Bible-women and 
senior boarding-school girls helping in the 
teaching of these children, also of evangelistic 
services and decisions for Christ. 



280 



CHAPTER XXIII. 

LUCHOW. 
(Pronounced Loo- jo. Population, 200,000.) 

" T^HE city of Luchow fronts on the Great 
Yang-tse, facing east. It is only four 
years since onr Canadian Methodism opened 
work here, but just outside the South Gate 
the China Inland Mission have their head- 
quarters, and have been doing a fine city 
and country work for over twenty years. 
This city, like Chungking, is especially 
densely populated, having very narrow 
streets. A baby mountain, covered with 
ancient graves and with a pretty temple on 
. its summit, stretches to the West. 

" Our street (' Three-cornered street ') fol- 
lows from the West Gate, quite close along 
the north wall of the city. Just below this 
the Lu River flows and empties into the 
Yang-tse, so the city is hemmed in on three 
sides by mountains and rivers." 

Property had been secured through the Transfor- 
kind help of Rev. C. J. P. Jolliffe near that matl0n * 
of the General Board in 1911, and we find 
the usual experience of pulling down old 
houses and replacing them with home and 
school, turning the wilderness into a " garden 
of the Lord." 

281 



China 

Miss Charlotte A. Brooks, who has been 
in charge at this station since its opening, 
thus writes: 

" The largest, highest room of this house 
is being arranged for a Woman's School, 
floored and enlarged, and now desks are being 
made, partly from some of the old lumber. 
The other two large rooms, with a tiny kit- 
chen and pantry, and one single upstairs 
room, will form a home for me until the new 
house is built. I can look after the school 
and the workmen with greater ease, being so 
close to both. 
Rain " One drew a sigh of relief when the last 

Cleansing. f the houses disappeared. The wind and 
sunshine and rain have since been cleansing 
those dirty, disease-infected places. 

" Notwithstanding its age, you should see 
how pretty my little cottage looks, and at 
only a small expense, but of course it cannot 
stand much longer. I have put an inexpen- 
sive bamboo fence around a little garden plot 
in front, which will be an oasis in the desert 
of brick and stone, lumber and tile which are 
strewn over all the rest of the place, and will 
be so for a year to come, hurry as we may. 

"I have eight carpenters at work making 
some desks for the Woman's School (Mrs. 
JollifTe and I made a pattern between us). 

ISTine brick masons working on a wall, and 
about thirty-five stone masons digging for the 

282 



Luchow 

foundation and cutting and placing stone 
in it. 

" The customary Chinese wage is a mere 
pittance, and here it is less even than in 
Chengtu. Although they begin work at day- 
break, about 5.30 these June days, and keep 
it up until dark, which is about seven, they 
really do very little, and the cost of one's 
building amounts to a considerable sum just 
the same. They breakfast at 7 a.m., have two 
ten-minute recesses for smoking, and after 
an hour's dinner-time two more ten-minute 
afternoon smokes ; supper at seven, after clos- 
ing work. They have a brick mud stove fixed 
up in one of the old rooms along the street, 
where they take their meals, and many of 
them sleep there as well, on a board, in any 
old loft, or on some shavings. 

"Each set of workmen has its own head 
man, who takes the orders and passes them 
on to the men ; this ' boss ' coming every Sat- 
urday night for the wages of all under him. 
We deal with only one man. Generally these 
head men are very bright, interesting fellows. 

" It rains, rains, rains. I think there have 
been scarcely more than ten clear days in the 
two months and a half I have been here. 
Apparently these districts along 'the Great 
Kiver' get a good deal of rain. Chungking 
is in the same mood just now, while Chengtu 
has been having beautiful weather. 

283 



China 

** ain . " Yesterday the first stones were laid in 

es roymg. ^ ^j^ f or fae foundation of the front of 
the house, and to-day's rain since before day- 
break, even with quite constant dipping out, 
is nearly floating them out of their places. 
The carpenters and some of the stone masons 
can work, under cover, but the rest work a 
little — digging and carrying earth, largely 
protected by their wide-rimmed bamboo 
i merry widow' hats — until it pours a little 
too heavily, when even they have to make a 
dash for shelter. I have been wanting to get 
the foundation finished by the first of August 
so I could go away for a month, but the pro- 
spect just now is not very cheerful. When 
hot weather does come to Luchow it is said 
to be very hot, but I must get the foundation 
done before I go away so as to be able to go 
on with the brickwork in September. 

" While building is under way one cannot 
do much else, and this seems like waste time 
compared to one's real work — telling the Gos- 
pel story. And Luchow needs it so badly. 
The China Inland Mission have been here 
for about twenty years, a few of them, and 
Lave quite a nice area i under cultivation,' 
but there are wide, wide spaces where no one 
knows anything about the Gospel. 

"I am helping Mrs. Jolliffe with three 
women's classes a week, but that is so little, 
against the great heathen masses around us. 

" Until I have an associate I am living 

284 



Luchow 

with Mr. and Mrs. Jolliffe, who have so 
kindly opened their home to me and who do 
everything in their power to make it pleasant. 
I am most happy and have great visions for 
the future Luchow when the Kingdom will 
have come to her. 

"Besides the day school, which had been Chinese 
handed over to us by the General Society, Society 
another branch of work has opened, by Education, 
means of which we are getting in touch with 
some of the wealthier, more cultured classes. 
Some of the progressive women of Luchow 
have banded themselves together into a 
' Society for the Education of Girls and 
Women,' which also urges, aside from that 
reform which its title indicates, such meas- 
ures as anti-footbinding and hygiene. A 
normal class for women has been begun, as 
well as the less advanced course. When a 
request came to us for help in their efforts 
to bring enlightenment to their country- 
women, we considered it an opportunity to 
get into closer relations with this class, which 
seems, at times, rather difficult to reach. 
Especially did it seem advisable, as there is 
no boarding-school yet to demand constant 
attention. The work there has been a decided 
pleasure. I have met with the greatest cour- 
tesy and respect, and have enjoyed very much 
the coming into close personal touch with the 
ladies and girls of this interesting and intelli- 
gent class of our city. 

285 



China 



A Year's 
Inter- 
ruption. 



Welcomed 
Back 1912. 



"By the last week in August, 1911, the 
schoolroom, house foundation and west com- 
pound wall were all finished and ready for a 
vigorous, telling work in the autumn. So, 
tired but happy, I closed it all and came 
down to the Chungking hills for a two-weeks' 
rest with friends. During this time the 
trouble broke out." 

How pathetic is her comment written from 
Shanghai : 

" That is all — just a little beginning made, 
just a little seed sown, but the Father, who 
knoweth all things, and in His own mysteri- 
ous ways l His wonders will perform,' is, we 
know, watching over His own, and we have 
but to patiently bide His time." 

Not till the fall of 1912 was return 
feasible. 

"It was good to see the old surroundings. 
The warm welcome from our Chinese people, 
and the two mission families already arrived, 
gave me the glad feeling of being home again. 

" I found my rooms not so badly disturbed 
by the robbers as I had feared, the dishes 
being the greatest loss. 

" Our W.M.S. property, the scene of many 
busy workmen a year ago, was well grown 
up with weeds, the house foundation being 
scarcely distinguishable. Alas for our plans ! 
I had thought to urge the building on 

286 



Luchow 

rapidly, so as to be ready to open work at the 
earliest possible time, and a year had gone 
by, leaving not only the building deserted, 
but so many changes in other things. Clearly 
our ways are not God's ways, and the change 
in the minds and attitude of the people at 
large can hardly be estimated, so thorough 
has been the revolution. 

"Arrangements for the building of the ^ alls 
street wall had to be made at once, as we 
were never safe from thieves as it was. A 
new head stone-mason was commissioned to 
buy a quarry and get stone out for both the 
wall-base and the final layer of stone on the 
house foundation. In a month from the 
time of my arrival I had a good-sized gang 
of men at work, and by the first of February 
the wall and gateway were almost finished, 
and the house foundation ready to begin the 
brickwork. My head carpenter was clever 
in his way, the head brick mason one of 
the best in the city, and things might have 
gone on fairly satisfactorily, but the former 
died suddenly in April, and the latter, in 
spite of all I can do, is going rapidly with 
tuberculosis. Both cases are sad ones to us. 
The work, however, is going on as rapidly as 
can be expected, and we hope, by continuing 
the workmen all summer, the house may be 
completed by September. It is a long, tedi- 
ous process, and with untrained workmen, 
especially now on the inside woodwork, con- 

287 



China 

stant supervision is needed, and one does not 
dare leave it to do very much other work. 

a At first, beside the usual Sunday work, 
I tried to do some week-day evangelistic work, 
keeping up the Tuesday church class with the 
women, and at least two classes a week in 
members' homes, where the average attend- 
ance was about ten. It was hard to give these 
week classes up, but it could not be helped, 
the building held me too closely. 

" In January I engaged a nice old teacher, 
and about ten women have been in attend- 
ance, as they could, and among them a Bible- 
woman in training. 

" They are studying Gospel books and the 
Bible, but even to this little school I could 
give only a limited amount of attention. 

"Miss Thompson joined me in January, 
and we immediately began housekeeping in 
our own wee cottage, with its tiny garden, 
where we have lived so cosily and happily, 
even with the sound of workmen's tools with- 
in a stone's throw of us, from early morning 
until night. So our life has been a busy 
and a noisy one, and there is the constant 
anxiety lest, in our ignorance of building, 
there should be bad mistakes made, but we 
hope the house will stand, and will be for the 
glory of God for many years to come. But 
there has been the daily hurt, that there was 
snch need of work everywhere around us, and 
we were having so little time to give to it. 

288 



Luchow 

But our Father knows; ever He has been 
with us, accepting our daily consecration of 
time and affairs, so wonderfully giving guid- 
ance and wisdom in things that would other- 
wise be impossible." 

Of 1913 Miss Brooks says: 

" Last year I continued the building of the 
house right through July and August, the 
urgency of its completion, and also the 
unsettled state of the country, making it 
unwise to stop, or go away an eight days' 
journey to attend Council ; so I kept the men 
steadily at work even while the fighting in 
connection with the rebellion was going on. 
We had a few exciting days and nights when 
bullets were falling all around us, and two of 
Miss Thompson's pupils were wounded by 
bursting shells, but the Luchow troops finally 
won out, and then the enemy retreated. 

u The house was finished and we moved in 
about Christmas, but during the painting I 
succumbed to paint poisoning, and Miss 
Thompson had to largely give up her school 
work and superintend the painters, of whom 
we have very poor samples in our city Lu. 

" Now, instead of a small village of huts, 
we have a comfortable and substantial home 
surrounded by green lawns ; and although our 
former Chinese cottage is very inadequate 
for school purposes, yet during the year 
between 130 and 150 children and a good 

19 289 



China 



Troops 
Fighting. 

Terrified 
Refugees. 

Wounded 
Cared for. 



many women have learned the important 
principles of the Gospel and are learn- 
ing to sing hymns of praise to Him before 
whom we all bow and love to name Father 
and Saviour. " 

We cannot better tell the exciting experi- 
ences of 1915-16 than in Miss Brooks' own 
words : 

"Between Christmas and Chinese New 
Year, Yuan Shi Kai, having announced the 
monarchy, forestalled possible trouble by 
having some thousand troops in our city, 
nominally to put down robber bands. When 
the fighting actually began, during the first 
week of February, and the Szechuan 2nd 
division went over to the side of the rebel 
Yuannanese, the women and children of our 
city became terrified of the soldiers, and also 
of possible firing and looting of their homes, 
so all our mission compounds became refugee 
homes for as many as they could accommo- 
date. There was only about a week's fighting 
across the north-east corner of the city, when 
the Yuannanese were driven some distance 
away, but the fighting went on for weeks, and 
wounded Northern soldiers were brought in 
daily for treatment. The medical people 
were overworked, and throughout the city 
people were excited, and there was no peace 
anywhere. The Northern troops, as well as 
roving robber bands, went through the coun- 

290 



Luchow 

try districts, robbing and otherwise ill-treat- 
ing the people. The country home of one of 
our teachers was robbed of much of their 
stuff, and the women folk scattered in all 
directions. The members of this one brother's 
family were finally collected, and are at pres- 
ent living in a vacant room over our gate- 
house, and two of the daughters have entered 
our boarding-school. A younger brother has 
since been robbed of everything, the old 
giandmother has died of grief, and they are 
asking that a daughter of that family come 
into the school. A young married son of one 
of Mr. Jolliffe's school teachers was shot dead 
while trying to defend his home. There has 
been a good deal of that sort of thing in the 
country districts, and even in our city, where 
a semblance of order was kept. 

"This term we have twenty boarding 
pupils, who have come in with written agree- 
ments to pay a third of their board expenses, 
and finally to give two years' service as pupil 
teachers. Two others are paying all their 
expenses, and others are temporarily resi- 
dent, but twelve have their food brought from 
home to them each day. Among these thirty- 
four, seven are daughters of teachers, and 
several belong to well-to-do families, owning 
property or silk shops, and one family is that 
of a wealthy native doctor. 

" The day school has enrolled 165 pupils, 
but only an average attendance of about 125. 

291 



China 

Miss Jack is taking charge of the singing, 
which is a very great help. 

" This war cloud has had its silver lining, 
in that it has brought us into contact with 
more representative people of the city. The 
women folk of one wealthy family have been 
refugees with us since February, along with 
the wife and family of an ex-official. They 
gave us a contribution of twenty dollars 
(gold). 

"Because of the disturbed conditions, so 
much coming and going of people, the daily 
anxiety re news of the local fighting, the 
people at times terrified lest the city be 
entered by the enemy, our work necessarily 
has not been what it should have been. Our 
compound, crowded with refugee families 
and school children, is a small village in 
itself. 

"We are facing the prospect of spending 
all the hot summer here with them, but our 
blessings are innumerable. God has kept and 
is keeping. While we might repeat Paul's 
words that the ' whole creation groaneth and 
travaileth together' at the present time, yet 
our faith is strong that through it all, per- 
haps even because of it all. His Kingdom is 
coming." 



292 



CHAPTER XXIV. 

PENGHSIEN. 
(Pronounced Pen-shan.) 

ABOUT a day's journey north of the 
capital we reach Penghsien, a city of 
over 50,000, in a district estimated to have 
the densest rural population in the world 
(800,000), about 1,700 to the square mile. 
From its elevation it is considered the health 
resort of the Mission. 

It was a joy to the Council of 1911 that 
there were sufficient workers to make possible 
an opening in Penghsien, as well as Tzeliu- 
tsing and Luchow. 

Although evangelistic work was the first 
anticipated, yet the opportunity of a day 
school for girls was shown to be more feasible. 
A vacant room on the premises of the Gen- 
eial Board was kindly placed at our disposal, 
and school opened with an attendance of 
eight, which rapidly grew to thirty, the limit 
of the room's capacity. The majority of 
these girls proved bright and capable. This 
continued three months; then vacation, fol- 
lowed by the revolution and dispersion. 

After the return in 1913 Miss Virgo 
writes : 

"Two years' sunshine and rain had not 
improved the appearance of our home, but 

293 



China 

with carpenters and painters at work for a 
month, the house is now in readiness for 
occupation in the fall. A number of school- 
girls and women have called expressing their 
desire to study when school opens, and we 
look forward with joyful anticipation towards 
helping to spread the Gospel of good tidings 
in this corner of the great vineyard." 

And later : 

" In December, thirteen obtained certifi- 
cates for the first three years Junior Primary 
Chinese language, and six for arithmetic for 
the same period. 

"Miss Harrison's help in teaching the 
women and girls singing has been much 
appreciated. The girls have made good pro- 
gress, until now they help materially with 
the congregational singing. 

" Our property is small, too small for the 
needs, and we are constantly praying that the 
way may be opened for the securing of more, 
that our work may not be hampered. We feel 
that only a feeble beginning has been made 
in this corner of the vineyard, but pray that 
the great Lord of the harvest may water the 
seed sown, that it may bring forth fruit, some 
even an hundredfold." 

The following letter from Miss Virgo, 
April, 1916, gives a little idea of some of the 
difficulties in purchasing land. These are 

294 



^JPenghsien 

accentuated when lots are small, irregular in 
shape, and owned by several parties. 

" We have at last obtained possession of Difficulties 
the new piece of land purchased almost two j n Bu y- 
years ago. The property was owned by a ing * 
society. This society sold to a Mr. Liao for 
taels 1,500, and Mr. Liao sold to our ' middle- 
man ' lor taels 2,700. That one man should 
make such a ' squeeze' as that on one deal 
was not to be considered, and a lawsuit 
ensued. The Chinese demanded that at least 
a portion of the ' squeeze ' be given over for 
public use. Whether this lawsuit is settled 
yet or not I do not know. The case went 
from Penghsien to Ohengtu, and from 
Chengtu to Peking. H.B.M. Consul finally 
appealed to the Foreign Office in Peking, and 
as a result the Foreign Office instructed the 
magistrate here to order the tenants to vacate 
at once. And then came more delays. The 
magistrate asked first for ten days, then fif- 
teen, then twenty, but at the expiration no 
move had been made. I wrote the official 
that we would proceed on a certain date to 
take oil' the tiles from the roof. Even then 
he asked for more time, but we refused, and 
on April 4th we had fifty masons on hand 
to pull down old buildings. That morning 
some of the tenants had heard of our decision 
and accordingly moved out, others the next 
day, and soon all had vacated. The old shops 
and houses were sold or torn down for fire 

295 



China 

wood, and now our property is cleared off 
and foundation for a wall already laid. 
Help from "With this added work, also weighing of 
Chen lime, stone, etc., for walls, I feel highly privi- 

Pupil. leged because I have had the help of Mrs. 

Loh, who was our first pupil in the Girls' 
School, Chengtu, now the wife of an evan- 
gelist. She came up here last fall on account 
of ill-health, and the change and rest have 
done so much for her that she is now able 
to help in the school. She is very happy 
because she can teach again, and, as she says, 
help in the Lord's work. She is a beautiful 
Christian character, and I know her influ- 
ence will be most helpful upon the lives of 
the girls whom she teaches day by day." 



296 



CHAPTEK XXV. 

Chungking. 

IN south-eastern Szechwan, at the junction Oppor- 
of the Yang-tse and Kialing Kivers, we find *p™ ty ™. 
the city of Chungking, the great commercial ung mg * 
metropolis of West China, and one of the 
most important cities in the country. Hav- 
ing a population of over 700,000, it is one of 
the most densely crowded cities in the world, 
but fortunately it is largely situated on a 
high, rocky hill. Over two hundred foreign- 
ers live in Chungking, engaged in consular 
and civil service and some lines of business. 

All our missionaries pass this way, but 
instead of proceeding further by water, in 
many cases they prefer taking the ten days' 
overland journey to Chengtu by chair. 

The opportunities for Christian work in 
such a centre are manifest, and it has been 
exceedingly disappointing that hitherto our 
Society has been unable to seize them. 

In 1912-13 a disastrous fire levelled num- 
bers of houses in a central block, and the mis- 
sionaries were not slow to secure for the 
W.M.S. a very desirable lot. There were 
high hopes of building and establishing a 
much-needed boarding-school. Two of our 
missionaries were assigned to open work, but 

297 



China 

after a very short time the demands of other 
stations obliged them to withdraw, and with 
reluctance they had to relinquish what seemed 
so promising. 

Not for lack of money, not for lack of 
land, not for lack of will, not for lack of need, 
but for lack of consecrated young lives, earn- 
est Christian girls, educated and experienced, 
willing to go to China to make known to its 
young womanhood Christ, the power of God 
to save and purify and make them a blessing 
to their own kindred. Do we not hear the 
call, " The Master is come and calleth for 
thee"? 



THE HEART 
OF THE PROBLEM 



The Home Base 

Distinguished Service 
Order 



CREDO 



Not what, but WHOM, I do believe, 
That, in my darkest hour of need, 
Hath comfort that no mortal creed 
To mortal man may give; — 
Not what, but WHOM! 

For Christ is more than all the creeds, 
And His full life of gentle deeds 
Shall all the creeds outlive. 
Not what I do believe, but WHOM! 

WHO walks beside me in the gloom? 
WHO shares the burden wearisome? 
WHO all the dim way doth illume? 
And bids me look beyond the tomb 
The larger life to live? — 
Not what I do believe, 
BUT WHOM! 
Not what, 
But WHOM! 

John Oxenham. 



CHAPTER XXVI. 



THE HOME BASE. 



"TTEIS Canada of Ours"— a Land of 
J^ Promise. This chapter is not easy to 
write. One is so near to it, so much a part 
of it, the perspective is somewhat blurred. 
Yet one sees at a glance a country of vast 
extent with unknown and undeveloped re- 
sources; a sparse but strong, virile, liberty- 
loving population; a young nation destined 
to play a large part in the Federation of the 
British Empire. 

It has an area of 3,729,665 square miles — Area. 
one-third of the British Empire; proportion 
of population about two to the square mile; 
England and Wales, 558. The official census, 
1915, gives the population as 8,075^0. 
Total foreign population, 752,T32. Of this 
62.2 per cent, live in the Western Provinces ; 
40 per cent, of aliens have come from the 
United States. 

Since 1867, the date of Confederation of 
the Provinces, Canada has greatly increased 
in power ; has become first in status of Brit- 
ish possessions ; has attained self-government, 
and is now sharing in the defence of the 
Empire. 

301 



The Heart of the Problem 



Education 



Resources. 



Days to 
Come. 



The Government and Church authorities 

I have ever been alive to the value of educa- 

l tion. Universities and colleges of every 

1 description afford large opportunity to every 

\ class of student, and nearly^ mi21ion_ and a 

half of child ren attend the public schools. 

Ontario" leads in the number of those who 

can read and write; percentage, .93.17. 

The natural resources of the country are 
beyond computation — mineral riches untold, 
including gold and silver. British Columbia 
has the largest cp%L areas in Norfli America, 
and it is said that directly under the city of 
Edmonton there are coal beds containing 
many thousand million tons ; wealth in water- 
powers and in waterways ; in raw material 
for manufacturing, and, in addition, Canada 
is one of the world's great " bread-baskets," 
containing not only the finest of wheat, but 
all else necessary for the sustenance of a great 
people. 

We are thrilled by the vision of days to 
come when tens, yea, hundreds of millions, 
shall tread the lands we now call our own, 
reap the wheat of our vast prairies, delve in 
our mines and sail our great waters ; but we 
are sobered by the thought that much of the 
glory of that future time depends upon the 
character of the foundation we are jiow build- 
ing, upon which they must erect their super- 
structure. 



302 



The Home Base 

We have a noble ancestry, British and 
French ; we have entered upon the goodly 
heritage of free speech, free schools, free 
preys' and liberty of worship. May we hold 
all we have and add our share to what has 
been won at a great price. 

We glory in the fact that at this moment — ^[ ave 
December, 1916 — Canada is represented in 
the armies of Britain and at' the front by \ 
400,000— soon to be 500,000— of the best i 
and bravest men of our land, who are count- \ 
ing not their lives dear unto them, who are 
fighting for these very things, fighting against 
oppression, against the age-long idea that 
might is right. They are contending for the 
liberty of small nations to live their own 
lives. God grant that soon all peoples may 
learn and practise the watchword of the 
Christ, given by St. Paul, " By love serve 
one another." 

In this law of service Methojlism has taken x 739- 
a worthy share. Born in 1739, its first Con- 
ference was held June 25th, 1744, when only 
John and Charles Wesley, with four friends 
of the English clergy and four lay preachers, 
were present. A small plant, but its leaves 
have been for the healing of the nations ; its 
ministry has circled the globe and its mem- 
bers and adherents now number approxi- 
mately 33,000,00& Tts ideals were high— 
" To spread"scriptural holiness throughout 
the land " — yet its terms of church member- 

303 



The Heart of the Problem 

ship were and are very simple — " a desire to 
flee from the wrath to come." On this broad 
basis of dominant desire millions have entered 
into church fellowship, become children of 
God and heirs of the Kingdom. 

1766. Methodism came to America in 1766. All 

women of our communion should know the 
story of how Barbara Heck, alarmed and 
aroused by the life her acquaintances and 
friends were living in the new land, where 
old restraints were removed and new tempta- 
tions assailed, after vigorously warning and 
remonstrating with them, prevailed upon her 
cousin, Philip Embury, who had been licensed 
in the Old Country, to preach, which he div' 
in his own house and afterwards formed two 
classes, one for men, the other for women. 

But before this, in 1765, Newfoundland, 
the oldest colony, had received the Gospel as 
preached by the Wesleys, and from there it 
made its way westward and northward. There 
is a pleasant story told of some Methodist 
soldiers in the army of General Wolfe at 
Quebec holding services in their camps and 
barracks as early as 1763, thus antedating by 
about three years the organization in New 
York. 

^3. 1763-1916.— "What hath God wrought?" 

We contrast with grateful amazement these 
small beginnings with the present standing 
of the Church. Tn the United States members 
and adherents number over 23,000,000, com- 

304 




to* 



5,000. 



The Home Base 

municants 7,000,000 ; in Canada, 1,079, 
of these 378,802 are communicants. 

Arfew facts : The Church in Canada has Status, 
one General (Conference, held every four 
years, and twelve Annual Conferences; 5,319 v 
ipreaching appointments ; 2,880 ministers and / 
probationers; 3,818 Sunday schools, with 
415,337 scholars, 42,590 officers and teach- 
ers. Total contributions from Sunday schools, ' 
$429,094 ; of this amount $62,414 for mis- 
sionary purposes; Young People's Societies, 
including Junior Leagues, 2,327; members, 
93,530. 

From the first Methodism has been a Students 
strong, aggressive force for righteousness, 
possibly the more so because in its early days, 
both in England and here, it had to contend 
vigorously — one might almost use a stronger 
word — for those rights now so freely granted 
to all denominations without question. Born 
in a university, its standards have not been 
lowered ; it yields to none4n 4h^gtatus of its 
ministers or of th^fifteen collegesNmder its 
care, with over five~ tho usani h'stuojents. Of 
these colleges eleven are co-educational. In 
reference to therdepletion of numbers during 
the war, the Secretary of Education, Kev. 
Dr. J. W. Graham, writes: "We are justly 
proud of these gallant boys who have gone 
forth from our halls to fight the battles of 
Empire, and though many of them fill un- 
known graves across the sea, 'Their high 

20 305 LI 



ft 1 



The Heart of the Problem 

souls burn on to light the feet of men to deeds 
that make the dying sweet.' " In passing we 
would like to pay tribute to those " glorious 
days of old/' to the men who by their devo- 
tion and sacrifice made possible the founding 
of these colleges. The ministers' wives of that 
time should have a share in their glory, fori 
while the husbands, under the spell of a glow- 
ing Conference appeal, promised certain sums, 
the wives by their closer economy, sometimes 
by privation, implemented the promise. 
Value of college property over seven millions. 
Educational Fund, 1916, $64,000. 
Home g uc ] 1 i s om , j[ ome ;g ase i n Church an( J 

State. What is the business of the Home 
Base ? The business of the Home Base is to 
gather together, to so weld into one its 
Christian forces, that they shall take on the 
semblance of personality, sensitive and re- 
sponsive to need anywhere and everywhere. 
This our Church seeks to do through its vari- 
ous departments, Social Service and Evan- 
gelism, Deaconess Order and its missionary 
efforts centred in the General Board of 
Missions, which we of the W.M.S. seek to 
supplement. 

General Missionary Society. 

General Missionary Society organized 
1824. Income, $140. Income, "191 6, $651,- 
450. Of this $117,562 has been contributed 

306 



The Home Base 

by Sunday schools, Young People's Societies 
and juvenile offerings. 
\y Home Department. — Missionaries among 
English-speaking people in Canada, New- 
foundland and Bermuda, 716. 

Foreign Department. — China: Mission- 
varies, 79 ; of these ten are ladies, seven 
nurses and three teachers in the School 
for Missionaries' Children. The Woman's 
Missionary Society has the pleasure of pay- 
ing the salaries of four of these nurses. 
Japan: Missionaries, 20; including two 
ladies in Methodist Academy (School for 
Missionaries' Children) . 
^ The Foreign Department has undertaken 
to evangelize fourteen millions of people. 
impossible ! " We have a God who delights 
in impossibilities." 

The difficulties for the Societies in the p£ r ^ ion 
/home fields are greatly multiplied by the 
( enormous foreign population JhaLha^eeme-to I . / 
\us sinceT.906. These legions who need the I ^ 
(Christ constitute our greatest opportunity, j 
and yet hold a menace; they send forth a 
challenge to the Church, and now is the time \ 
to meet it, not after the war, when we may 1 -*~7 ) yf 
be overwhelmed, if not submerged, by the ( * 
semi-civilized hordes from the Balkan States. /(^vlt 

— ^ForoSeTnone hundred and fifty comes from ^ 

the sources of supply twenty-five years ago. 
Our problems and perplexities are enhanced 
from the fact that these new-comers, who are 

307 \^y 



The Heart of the Problem 



\ 



v/ 



Present 

Day 

Duty. 



home-seekers, have elected and been per- 
mitted to settle in certain districts in the 
cities and in colonies in the country some- 
tfan&r'of ^great extent, where one may travel 
all day without passing a Canadian home. 
And so an Italy, an Austria or a Russia 
grows up within our borders, self-contained 
and almost self-sufficient. The men, through 
work and trade outside the colony, learn in a 

r way to speak our language, but at home they 
use 4heir ..own, so the women and family ~iife 

\ are untouched by the new world: religion, 
manners and customs remain unchanged. In 

I the providence of God these people are here, 

^and the question is how shall they be reached 
— for reached they must be — by our larger 
hope, our higher life, or we ourselves shall 
lose the gleam. 

The public school, the greatest unifying 
force in the world, boarding-schools, kinder- 
gartens and settlement work — all kinds of 
social service — must be multiplied a thousand- 
fold. In the foregoing chapters it has been 
seen that we have only made a beginning, just 
touched a thread here and there of the fringe 
of this alien population. 

Thirty-five years ago the call came to the 
women of the Church to "lend a hand" on 
the other side of the world. To-day more 
loudly and more insistently we hear it,_Jo 
neighbor with foreign people — all races of 
men — at our own door. It may be we find it 



308 



The Home Base 

easier, through our missionaries, through 
prayer, through gifts, to neighbor with those 
thousands of miles away than we do to visit 
the foreign woman at the other end of the 
city. " Love the stranger " is the command. 
Love will find a way to serve. 

Woman's Missionaby Society. 

To the broad-minded, far-seeing statesman- Monthly 
ship which in 1881 gave to the organization Meeting, 
the strong foundation of sole responsibility 
for Work under its care and large liberty of 
action regarding it must be credited, in great 
measure, whatever success it has attained. 
But its greatest influence and power have 
come from the persistent holding, all over 
the Dominion, by Auxiliaries, Circles and 
Bands, of the monthly meeting with its 
trinity of prayer, inspiration and education. 
Prayer has brought a oneness with Jesus in 
His compassion: the conviction that if we 
were responsive He would work through us 
has given wings to faith; and knowledge of 
achievement gained through study has given 
enthusiasm and power to surmount obstacles 
almost insuperable. 

Status, 1882: Missionaries, 2; Auxiliaries, 1882. 
20; members, 900; income, $2,916. 

Status, 1906: Missionaries, Japan 21, 
China 11, Canada 21; Auxiliaries, 946 
^embers, 26,741 ; income, $70,570.89 
Circles and Bands, 545; members, 16,100 

309 



The Heart of the Problem 

income, $14,623.69 ; Leagues, $427.42 ; 
Branches, 10; income from all sources, in- 
cluding Kest Fund, $93,346.34. 
1916. Status, 1916: Missionaries, Japan 29, 

China 27, Canada 64; Auxiliaries, 1,246; 
members, 44,135 ; income, $126,818.70 ; 
Circles, 405 ; members, 10,616 ; income, $24,- 
628.64; Bands, 616; members, 20,443; in- 
come, $17,264.29 ; associate members, 1,859 ; 
Little Light Bearers, 5,210; Leagues, 
$204.81; Branches, 12; income, $168,- 
916.44; bequests, $4,459.66; other sources, 
$26,778. Total income, including Rest 
Fund, $206,548.78. Amount received dur- 
ing decade, $1,540,345.74. Property owned 
by the Society (approximate) : In Japan, 
$123,390; China, $88,227; Canada, $137,- 
232 ; total, $348,849. See Appendix A. for 
Branch reports. 

All moneys are in hand before appropria- 
tion; thus all bank interest is saved. 
Member- Considering that approximately there are 

ship. 200,000 women communicants in our Church, 

to say nothing of adherents, our membership, 
while a matter for gratitude, is not a cause 
for pride. Our ideal, " An Auxiliary on every 
circuit and every woman a member of the 
Society," is still far in the distance. But 
these are no days to be daunted by a moun- 
tain climb. Let us seize our alpenstocks of 
faith and effort and we shall soon reach the 

top. 

310 



The HomeiBase 

Tka^Eestjjihd, so vital to the welfare of 
our missionaries when the time comes for 
retirement, grows more and more important 
as the number of annuitants increases. 1906 
status : Permanent Fund, $12,366.04. 1916 : 
Permanent Fund, $46,938.78; Annuity 
Fund, $5,500.65. Total Best Fund, $52,- 
439.43. Aim for 1926, $150,000. 

In 1908 the following resolution was for- 
warded to the General Board of Missions: 

" In view of the W.M.S. being authorized by the Sunday 
General Conference for the evangelization of heathen Schools. 
women and children, and, in consequence of the pres- 
sure being brought to bear upon the young people of 
the Church by the Forward Movemont, the General 
Society was memorialized to make full provision for 
co-operation in the presentation of the aim and scope 
of the two Mission Boards ; and it was further agreed 
that information concerning our special work should 
be adequately represented on Sunday-school mission- 
ary programmes, not on a separate day, but as a 
part of the missionary effort of the Church, and 
that a certain percentage of the contributions from 
Sunday schools for missions be annually passed over 
by the Mission Board to the W.M.S., or that some 
other method be adopted, which will further the ends 
we have in view. 



t i 



Some of the reasons presented were as follows: 

*' 1. Because this department of work is com- 
mitted to it. 

11 2. Because the W.M.S. shares to some extent 
with the Board of Missions in the maintenance of 
more than one institution, and failure to meet its 
obligation would be a serious embarrassment. 

"3. It supplements the Board in many places 
by furnishing nurses, Bible-women, kindergarten 
teachers, etc. 

311 



The Heart of the Problem 

"4. It supplies the majority of the Sunday-school 
teachers on the foreign field, well instructed in the 
Scriptures, and trained in the art of teaching, and, 
in addition, in its own little neighborhood schools 
scattered through the various cities, has as many as 
two thousand children under tuition (now over eight 
thousand). 

" 5. In its schools and by its evangelistic workers 
it gives fundamental teaching and training to the 
girls and women, most essential to the upbuilding of 
a true and intelligent Church. 

" 6. It furnishes bands of singers whose trained 
voices are a marked and valuable feature in the 
services of God's house. 

" 7. It instructs and leads in the obligation and 
practice of Christian stewardship, which will mean 
much to the Church in future." 

This petition was subsequently considered 
by the joint committee of the two Boards and 
then forwarded to the General Conference of 
1910, which granted it, the following being 
authorized: "The W.M.S. shall receive a 
sum not exceeding 20 per cent, of the 
amounts contributed to the General Mission- 
ary Fund by Sunday schools." Eeceived as 
W.M.S. share, 1916, $11,492.30. 

Literature and Publication Depart- 
ment. 

Great The Literature Department may be de- 

i? ei 7 e scribed as the great grand-trunk nerve system 

of the organization, sending out life-currents 
to its remotest parts. Depletion comes with 
age to ordinary nervous systems, but to this 
years bring only added potency. If the his- 

312 



The Home Base 

tory of the decade could show in some way 
the output from what used to be Room 20, 
but is now Room 410 in the new Wesley 
Buildings, Queen Street West, it would be 
a revelation that would revolutionize our 
ideas concerning its value. The Literature 
Committee, with Mrs. A. M. Phillips as its 
leader, is ever looking for helpful literature, 
and its bi-monthly meetings are an earnest 
effort to secure the best. 

The Eastern and Manitoba depots continue 
to be valuable distributing centres. This 
" Story " would not be complete without an 
appreciation of the efficient, faithful service 
rendered for twenty-eight years by Mrs. 
Charles Stewart as Secretary-Treasurer of 
the Eastern Literature Depot. 

The number using the Study Books has ^ tud ^ 
increased steadily, both for seniors and jun- °° s * 
iors, and in like manner Study Classes. The 
Society is greatly indebted to Mrs. H. A. 
Lavell for the skill and spiritual insight with 
which she has for eight years prepared the 
" Suggested Programmes," so that Auxiliar- 
ies with limited facilities have been enabled 
to make the most of the Study. 

Through the Annual Report, the Mite 
Boxes (income last year $14,051), Easter 
appeal and envelopes, certificates, etc., Room 
410 is constantly in touch with the whole con- 
stituency. Note the volume of business that 
must be done each year to reach the grand 

313 



The Heart of the Problem 

total of the decade, which says nothing of 
thousands of letters, packages, etc., sent out: 

Total Receipts (including Grant, $26,595.32). $70,179.48 

Books and Pamphlets— Issued 999,067 

" " —Purchased 121,231 

Text Books Sold 39,200 

Easter Thank-offering Envelopes 855,942 

Mite-Boxes 220,319 

Mile-of -Copper Holders 57,460 

Membership Pins 2,096 

" " —Silver 936 

Suggestive Programme Leaflets 138,320 

Monthly Letters 343,900 

Circle Pins 200 

Band Pins 200 

Periodicals. Periodicals. — The Outlook remains the 
official missionary organ of the Church. Miss 
Henrietta MacCallum, the former talented 
Associate Editor, was followed in 1907 by 
Miss E. J. McGuffin, who has maintained 
the high standard of her department. Sub- 
scribers: 1906, 13,500; 1916, 14,052. To 
credit of Outlook, $381. 

Palm Branch. — In 1907 Miss Harriet 
Stewart, M.A., succeeded the former versa- 
tile Editor, Miss L. Lathern. This little 
paper this year celebrated its twenty-fifth 
birthday. It grows in favor with its years 
and should be found in Sunday schools as 
well as Circles and Bands. Subscribers: 
1906, 4,034; 1916, 6,330. 

Since retiring from the Palm Branch Miss 
Lathern has ably edited the W.M.S. column 
in the Wesleyan and Miss McGuffin has ren- 

314 



tide. 



The Home Base 

dered the same valuable service in the 
Guardian. 

The Monthly Letter, so carefully prepared 
by Mrs. Bascom, is a great boon to Heralds 
and Associate members. Subscriptions: 
1905-6, $231.57; 1915-16, $365.03. 

One writes in reference to these papers: 
" Our hope has been to stimulate the world- 
thought of the present missionary day, to 
quicken spiritual life, to enlarge mental 
vision and to press the obligation of Chris- 
tian Stewardship upon our members." 

Easter-tide. — The Kesurrection, the appear- Easter- 
ance of the living Christ having been first to 
Mary, and the commission then given to 
women, combine to make Easter the supreme 
festival of the Society. Easter offering, 1906, 
$11,854; 1916, $26,233. 

The Supply Committee. — The name of the 
Secretary, Mrs. Wm. Briggs, who is still the 
heart and soul of this beneficent department, 
is " as ointment poured forth " in many 
lonely homes and isolated places. The bless- 
ing of the needy resteth upon her, and she 
continually calls forth the affection and 
admiration of her comrades. Over $80,000 
worth of goods have been sent out during the 
decade. 

Once in ten years is not too often to 
call attention to the rule, " In no case shall 
the funds of the Auxiliary be used for the 

315 



The Heart of the Problem 

purchase of material or the payment of 
freight." 

Industrial Work (Silk Embroidery). — Is 
still carried on in Kanazawa to assist the 
older sisters of some of the pupils, so that 
they may have the advantages of night school, 
Sunday as a rest day with Sunday school and 
religious services. Appropriation during ten 
years, $11,800. Work sold in Canada, $8,165. 
Consti- As the author in Volume I. outlined the 

tution. Constitution and various departments, and 

the Society's Blue Book is always at hand, 
it is only necessary to note a few changes and 
the growth of each division. Democratic in 
form, Auxiliaries, Circles and Bands are 
represented in the Branches, and the 
Branches, on a certain basis, in the Board. 

With the Board of Managers lies the power 
of legislation. It makes the rules, formulates 
plans, decides policies, etc. ; selects and 
appoints all missionaries, and receives and 
disburses all moneys given for its purposes. 
The Branches carry out the plans of the 
Board, which in many cases they have sug- 
gested, and gather up and make effective the 
resources of Auxiliaries, Circles and Bands. 
The three latter divisions form the founda- 
tion of the whole structure, and their func- 
tion is to inform and win the individual unit 
in the local church, 

i 'To live and love and labor 
In God's larger ways." 

316 



The Home Base 

Their fidelity and zeal during the strain of 
the past three years have been beyond all 
praise. 

The Constitution has changed but little 
during the decade, and any changes that have 
been made have been necessitated by growth 
in membership at home or extension in the 
different mission fields. In 1906 representa- 
tion from Branches to the Board was " one 
for every thousand members or major frac- 
tion thereof " ; now one for " every three 
thousand," etc. In 1914 the following was 
added : " Associate officers may be appointed Associate 
as the needs of the work may require, who 
shall be ex-officio members of the Board of 
Managers." We now have an Associate Sec- 
retary for Chinese work, one for Japanese, 
and another for Austrian and other European 
immigrants; also a Secretary for Special 
Objects and an Associate for Statistics. A 
wise division of labor for voluntary service 
should not be too exacting or overtaxing. 

Branches. — In 1909 Saskatchewan and 
Alberta were organized according to Confer- 
ence boundaries. The Auxiliaries of the 
former North-West Branch, with the excep- 
tion of those within the bounds of Manitoba 
Conference, and the Auxiliaries within the 
Province of Alberta, agreed to form two 
Branches instead of one. 1916, Newfound- 
land organized. 

317 



The Heart of the Problem 

Branches have added to their officiary a 
Treasurer for Circles and Bands and a Sup- 
erintendent of the Department of Christian 
Stewardship. 

The District Constitution has been made 
more effective. District Organizers have such 
a place of power and influence, they are 
expected to give wise and enthusiastic leader- 
ship. 

Auxiliaries and Circles have also added a 
Superintendent of Christian Stewardship 
and have won a point of long contention, the 
right to elect by ballot with or without nom- 
ination, as they shall choose. 

In 1915 "Little Light Bearers" became 
the new name for the Cradle Koll, so that it 
might not even seem to interfere with a simi- 
lar roll used in Sunday schools. This year a 
new annual member's certificate has been 
designed and a beautiful life member's certi- 
ficate is now ready. 

During the decade greater attention has 
been paid to the young people, with very 
gratifying results. 

Associate members are still very few, when 
they might number many thousands. 

Christian Stewardship has taken the place 
of " Systematic and Proportionate Giving," 
as it refers to life as a whole and not merely 
to the giving of money. By the appointment 
of superintendents in all Auxiliaries, knowl- 
edge and liberality have greatly increased. 

318 



Prayer. 



The Home Base 

National Training School and Deaconess National 
Home. — This school continues, for seven school"* 
months in the year, to be the training ground 
for missionary candidates, and all who have 
spent the session there speak in the highest 
terms of its value, especially in Bible study 
and the quickening of spiritual life. 

Day of Prayer. — Feeling the need of in- 2?2L°* 
creased intercessory prayer, the Board this 
year appointed a Day of Prayer, with special 
programme, which was largely observed 
throughout the Dominion. 

The presentation of the work of the Society 
to General and Annual Conferences con- 
tinues, also special Sunday services where 
practicable. The Every-Member Canvass is 
undertaken by all wide-awake Auxiliaries. 
The Birthday Party in January has yielded 
large returns, but there is no need to enum- 
erate; glowing enthusiasm is ever working 
out new plans, new methods. Efficiency, effi- 
ciency is the slogan of the hour, and it is a 
good one, but the deeper truth must be re- 
membered. " Not by might, nor by power, 
but by my Spirit, saith the Lord of Hosts." 

E. W. K. 



319 



CHAPTEE XXVII. 

" DISTINGUISHED SERVICE ORDER." 

" Love like the light silently 
wrapping all." 

IT has long been our thought that the 
Society should have an Order of Merit; 
a reward for long or distinguished service, as 
in the army. 'Not something that could be 
purchased for money, but a decoration given 
as a mark of honor and appreciation. It 
might be a star with bar for ten years of ser- 
vice; two bars for twenty; three for thirty. 
The trouble would be that so many would 
merit the .honor the Society would be in 
danger of bankruptcy. 

In this connection we are not now think- 
ing of Board and Branch officers, but of that 
silent company of women — who shall form 
a part of that " great multitude which no 
man could number " — who, by their devotion 
and zeal have really written the foregoing 
history. Through the years we see them at 
the monthly meeting, no matter how great 
the obstacles to be overcome by the way ; we 
see them taking part, often with faltering 
lips, but soul undaunted, and we see above 
all, love-crowned, sacrificial gifts. We like 

320 



Distinguished Service Order 

to put in contrast these groups of women, 
young girls and little tots with those other 
groups on the other side of the world, the 
first-fruits of their endeavor, and who, in 
turn, will win others to Christ, a divine mul- 
tiplication. 

How often we shower praise on our mis- 
sionaries, and that is well, that is right ; but 
how seldom do we speak of the valuable ser- 
vice being rendered by many others. The 
Society was singularly fortunate in the char- 
acter of its early messengers — women of 
vision, of judgment, of strong faith and prac- 
tical ideas — and it was equally favored in 
the life of those who formed its first officiary, 
who mapped out its rules and decided the 
policies which have, in the main, guided it 
ever since. They were no less rich than 
the missionaries in all things necessary to 
pioneers who enter an unknown territory, to 
tread an untried way ; their safety, however, 
was in the fact that they sought to follow 
the Christ; where they saw the light there 
they followed, and He has led them, with 
thousands whom they have influenced, to 
cities of habitation, even here, where they 
eat of the hidden manna and drink of the 
water of life. 

In looking at a summer landscape certain 
points of light attract the eye, so, in looking 
at a landscape of years certain events, certain 

21 321 



The Heart of the Problem 

personalities emerge from the background 
and make themselves both felt and seen; 
strange to say, they are more plainly visible 
to those of " one heart, one way." For in- 
stance, we of the Society see clearly in the 
centre of the picture the Vice-President, Mrs. 
A. Carman, wife of the senior General 
Superintendent; who, from the time of the 
union of the Societies (Wesley an and Meth- 
odist Episcopal) in 1885, has, by her states- 
manship and wise counsel, greatly strength- 
ened the organization. Mrs. E. S. Strachan, 
now Foreign Secretary, has stood by her side 
in counsel and " sweet reasonableness " all 
through the years. Mrs. G. P. McKay, for- 
mer Home Secretary, though obliged to retire 
in 1909 after thirteen years of service, is well 
in the foreground, her excellent judgment 
and Christlike spirit not having been forgot- 
ten ; quite near her, Miss Annie Ogden, who, 
from 1892 to 1912, devoted herself with skill 
and self-denying labor to the interests of the 
Literature and Publication Department. She 
should have a royal decoration, even though 
she bears the title of Hon. Sec.-Treasurer. 
Miss Marcella Wilkes, Treasurer for almost 
twenty years, who will appear in another 
picture, is in the group on the left, and with 
her Mrs. A. M. Phillips, a Secretary unsur- 
passed, for fifteen years ; Mrs. George Kerr, 
Home Secretary from 1907, and Mrs. 1ST. A. 

322 



Distinguished Service Order 

Powell, Secretary for Special Objects from 
1909 ; just a little apart Mrs. W. W. Ogden, 
Treasurer of the Eest Fund from 1902 to 
1914. 

Clustered about these central figures may 
be seen a larger group of equally clever and 
devoted women, to whose labors the Society 
is, perhaps, quite as much indebted. Who 
can estimate the influence of the following 
elect women; Mrs. J. B. Willmott, who, by 
her loving leadership, coupled with her 
capable and indefatigable Corresponding 
Secretary, Mrs. Wm. Briggs, has guided the 
fortunes of the Toronto Branch for the last 
twenty-two years ; Mrs. T. G. Williams, who 
has been the heartening friend of every offi- 
cer in the Montreal Branch for fourteen 
years, as Corresponding Secretary, and nine- 
teen as President ; Mrs. J. D. Chipman, for 
fourteen years President of the N". B. and 
P. E. I. Branch, and who still lives in the 
hearts of those who through her reached the 
highlands of service ; Mrs. T. W. Jackson, for 
thirteen years, also presided over the Hamil- 
ton Branch with such spiritual vision that her 
people see it still : she was followed by Mrs. 
J. E. Baker in 1907 ; Mrs. Gordon Wright 
for fifteen years President of the London 
Branch, and for a great part of the time 
Dominion President of the W. 0. T. XL, by 
her catholicity of spirit enlarged the. outlook 

21a 323 



The Heart of the Problem 

of her Branch. It was a* matter of great re- 
gret that she retired this year. Mrs. G. H. 
Young, pioneer President of Manitoba 
Branch for fourteen years, opened a new 
door to the women of the West, and was fol- 
lowed, in 1909, by an equally good pioneer, 
Mrs. G. !N". Jackson. Mrs. J. F. Betts stands 
among the first in length of fruitful service 
— much of which was the breaking of virgin 
soil — having been President of the British 
Columbia Branch for twenty-five years. Held 
in love and honor she lives in all hearts, and 
it was amid lamentations she refused office 
this year. Mrs. John Dolmage, President of 
the former North-West Branch, and Mrs. W. 
W. Chown, President of Alberta Branch, 
have each a share, though for a shorter time, 
in pioneer work in the West. Time fails to 
speak of others, but these are all entitled to 
wear a decoration, star and bar or two bars. 

There is one position in the Society which 
calls for unusual talent, that of Treasurer, 
so there was something like dismay felt by 
the Board when it learned that Miss Wilkes, 
who had so long guided its financial policy, 
thought it necessary to retire; but, in view 
of her long service it dared not ask more. 
The Board at its Annual Meeting, Septem- 
ber, 1916, found it difficult to express its 

324 



Distinguished Service Order 

appreciation. We quote a paragraph from 
the Resolution: 

Dear Miss Wilkes: — We find it difficult to ex- 
press in any adequate terms our indebtedness to 
you for all the years of service you have given the 
'Society, or our appreciation of the manner of 
that service. We think of you as the large, loving- 
hearted woman who has endeared herself not only 
to the officiary, but to the missionaries In the dif- 
ferent fields and to the whole constituency of the 
Society by an efficient, auiet, unobtrusive doing of 
an onerous task. Day after day you have attended 
to the details of an ever-increasing income, which 
in 1897, when you first assumed office, amounted 
only to $39,016.00, but now has reached the noble 
sum of $206,548.78. You have borne the burden, 
the responsibility of this great financial undertak- 
ing, and borne it cheerfully, gladly, for the Mas- 
ter's sake, with no thought of reward or remuner- 
ation — a love-offering which excites our admira- 
tion as well as our gratitude — when the expert 
knowledge and skill which you possess might have 
commanded a large monetary return. 

While you will ever abide in our love, we desire 
that your name shall always be associated with 
the Society. The Board has in mind setting aside 
the sum of ten thousand dollars for the erection 
of a Girls' Boarding School in the city of Chung- 
king, to be called the Marcella Wilkes School, and 
in it, we trust, the beautiful, upright character of 
our beloved Treasurer may be many times re- 
produced. 

During the last half of the decade, retire- 
ment from the foreign field of senior mission- 
aries brought not only regret, but real sorrow 
and loss irreparable, for confidence, ripened 
judgment through experience, and facility in 
the use of a language with understanding of 

325 



The Heart of the Problem 

a foreign people are not gained in a day. The 
history, as given by the author, needs no fur- 
ther words to reveal the life and work of 
each ambassador of Christ, whose name fol- 
lows : Miss Jessie K. Munro, Japan, eleven 
years, and five among Euthenians in Al- 
berta; Miss E. A. Crombie, Japan, twenty- 
one years ; Miss Isabel Masten, twenty years 
French Institute, Montreal; Miss E. A. 
Preston, twenty-six years, twenty in Japan 
and six in Vancouver; Miss Sara C. Brack- 
bill, twenty-one years in China ; Miss Isabel 
M. Hargrave, twenty-seven years in Japan, 
and Miss Elizabeth H. Alcorn, twenty years. 
It is the hope of the Board that nearly all 
of these ladies, who are held in loving regard, 
may, after rest has renewed their strength, 
serve in other ways if not in the foreign field. 

ARRIVED IN THE CITY OF GOD. 

" O Saul, it shall be 
A face like my face that receives thee: a man 

like to me, 
Thou shalt love and be loved by forever: a hand 

like this hand 
Shall throw open the gates of new life to thee! 
See the Christ stand." 

— Browning. 

In our book of life's most pleasant mem- 
ories we have inscribed the names of four of 
our comrades who all too soon passed from 
among us ; passed ere yet we had thought of 

326 



Distinguished l Service Order 

their departure or were in any way prepared 
for it. 

May Day, 1908, Miss Frances E. Palmer 
exchanged the limitations of time for the 
freedom of that " new life." Hers was a 
rarely gifted personality with a positive 
genius for organization ; she had also the use- 
ful faculty of discernment, so was able to 
draw to her side women of like mind and 
heart; a spiritual leader who, for twenty 
years, devoted her life to the interests of the 
New Brunswick and Prince Edward Island 
Branch. She still lives. 

Mrs. S. E. Whiston, from 1884 to 1904 
either President or Corresponding Secretary 
of the Nova Scotia and Newfoundland 
Branch, and Hon. President until 1912, was 
a woman greatly beloved. A ready writer, 
with subtle play of humor, she won many to 
service. One of those rare spirits only given 
to the world now and then. 

In the early days of 1914 the Master sud- 
denly called Mrs. H. L. Piatt from the little 
family circle where she seemed indispensable. 
Only three months previous, when she retired 
from office, the Board thus expressed itself. 
We quote two paragraphs : 

Resolved, " That this Board desires to place on 
record its appreciation of, and gratitude for, the 
efficient, devoted sacrificial services rendered to 
God and the Church by Mrs. G. D. Piatt, through 
the Bay of Quinte Branch, for two years Corre- 

327 



The Heart of the Problem 

sponding Secretary, for seventeen years its Presi- 
dent. Often in feeble health and pressed with 
home duties, yet, faith and zeal undaunted, she 
has by voice and pen led her people forward in 
the stewardship, not only of money, but of life. 

For the " Story of the Years " it owes her much, 
and has nothing with which to pay except loving 
thanks and the hope that she may find herself able 
to bring it up to date in the near future. 

Miss M. J. Cunningham, one of our senior 
missionaries, went home at the glorious 
Eastertide, 1916, from the work she loved 
to the Father whom she had served so de- 
votedly among foreign peoples — twenty-four 
years in Japan, and three among Europeans 
in Sault Ste. Marie, "The Story of the 
Years " makes manifest her beautiful, help- 
ful life and work. 

HEBE BEGINNETH A NEW DECADE. 

E. W. E. 

JN"OTE. 

As the President of the Society, Mrs. W. E. Ross, 
is the author of the chapter, " Distinguished Ser- 
vice Order,' ' it is not surprising to find that the 
group of officers she has so beautifully sketched in 
the fourth paragraph is incomplete. It therefore 
becomes necessary for another to take the artist's 
brush and insert an additional figure, a central one, 
the President, around which her fellow officers cluster. 

In the author's reference to the Vice-President, 
Mrs. Carman, wife of the General Superintendent 
Emeritus, Rev. Dr. Carman, one is reminded that the 
head officiary of the Society during the last decade 
has leaned somewhat toward ' ' apostolic succession. ' ' 

328 



Distinguished Service Order 

Mrs. Ross, daughter of the late General Superin- 
tendent, Rev. J. A. Williams, D.D., has shown much 
of her father's administrative ability, in connection 
with her regime as President since 1897. Whether in 
the capacity of presiding officer, speaking on the 
public platform, planning hospitals, school buildings 
or W.M.S. Homes, drafting Constitutions for the 
conduct of the affairs of the Society or educational 
institutions on the field, advising with candidates and 
missionaries, or in the many other duties devolving 
upon a presidential head, she has shown a rare com- 
bination of executive ability, business acumen, tactful 
oversight and spiritual vision that have made the 
wheels of the organization run with unusual smooth- 
ness — a worthy captain leading her comrades on to 
higher achievements, until the year 1916 registers a 
greater advance in membership and contributions 
than any previous record. 

All honor to a noble chief whose associates delight 
to follow. 

S. P. 



329 



APPENDIX 



A — Branch Schedules 

1905-1906 and 1915-16 

B— Officers 1906-1916 

C — Missionaries appointed 
since 1906 





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APPENDIX B. 

(Continued from Vol. I.) 

Officers of the Board of Managers 1906-1916. 

President: 
Mrs. W. E. Boss, Hamilton, Ont 1897- 

Vice-Presidents : 
By Election 

Mrs. A. Carman, Toronto, Ont 1885- 

By Virtue of Office 
The Presidents of Branches. 

Recording Secretary: 
Mrs. A. M. Phillips, Toronto, Ont 1901- 

Field {named Foreign 1909) Corresponding Secretary: 
Mrs. E. S. Strachan, Hamilton, Ont 1881- 



Associate Foreign Secretaries: 
For Chinese Work 

Mrs. J. D. Chipman, Toronto, Ont 1914-1916 

Mrs. James Hales, Toronto, Ont 1916- 

For Japanese Work 
Mrs. W. B. Coulthard, Toronto, Ont 1914- 



Home Secretary (Canadian Fields): 
Mrs. George Kerr, Toronto, Ont 1907- 

Associate Home Secretary : 
Mrs. James Harrison, Hamilton, Ont 1914- 

334 



Officers of the Board of Managers 

Home Secretaries of Statistics and Special Objects: 

Mrs. G. P. McKay, Toronto, Ont 1896-1909 

Mrs. N. A. Powell, Toronto, Ont 1909-1916 

Mrs. George J. Bishop, Toronto, Ont 1916- 

Associate Secretary: 
Mrs. J. D. Chipman, Toronto, Ont 1916- . . 

Treasurers: 

Miss Marcella Wilkes, Toronto, Ont 1898-1916 

Mrs. N. A. Powell, Toronto, Ont 1916- 

Best Fund Treasurers: 

Mrs. W. W. Ogden, Toronto, Ont 1902-1914 

Mrs. E. A. McCulloch, Toronto, Ont 1914- 

Vice-Presidents: 
By Virtue of Office 

Western or London Branch 
Organized 1882. Divided 1894 into 

London Conference Branch 

Mrs. Gordon Wright 1903-1916 

Mrs. W. E. Pescott 1916- 

AND 

Hamilton Conference Branch 

Mrs. T. W. Jackson 1894-1907 

Mrs. J. E. Baker 1907- 

Central or Toronto Branch 

Organized 1882. Divided 1893 into 

Toronto Conference Branch 

Mrs. J. B. Willmott , . .1894-. . . . 

AND 

Bay of Quinte Conference Branch 

Mrs. G. D. Piatt 1896-1913 

Mrs. A. W. Grange 1913- 

Eastern or Montreal Conference Branch 

Organized 1883 

Mrs. T. G. Williams 1897-. . . . 

335 



Officers of the Board of Managers 

Nova Scotia and Newfoundland Conference 

Branch 

Organized 1884. Divided 1915 into 

Nova Scotia Conference Branch 

Mrs. J. Wesley Smith 1904-1911 

Mrs. W. B. Chittick 1911- 

AND 

Newfoundland Conference Branch 
Mrs. E. G. Hunter 1915- 

New Brunswick and Prince Edward Island 
Branch 

Organized 1884 

Mrs. J. D. Chipman 1898-1911 

Mrs. W. B. Coulthard 1911-1913 

Mrs. C. F. Sanford 1913- 

Manitoba Conference Branch 
Organized 1895 

Mrs. G. H. Young 1895-1909 

Mrs. G. N. Jackson 1909- 

Divided and North-West Branch formed 1904 

Mrs. John Dolmage 1904-1909 

Again divided 

Saskatchewan Branch 

Organized 1909 

Mrs. J. Dolmage 1904-1911 

Mrs. John Bellamy 1911-1914 

Mrs. M. M. Bennett 1914- 

Alberta Branch 

Organized 1909 

Mrs. W. W. Chown 1909- 

British Columbia Conference Branch 
Organized 1891 

Mrs. J. F. Betts 1895-1916 

Mrs. F. B. Stacey 1916- 

336 



APPENDIX C. 



Missionaries Appointed Since 1906. 



Austen, May, M.A., M.D. 
Asson, Mary A. 
Armstrong, Mildred J. 
Addison, Margaret E. 
Adsett, Hazel. 
Armstrong, Georgie E. 

Beatty, Rose, B.A. 
Black, Emoline. 
Bird, Florence. 
*Bouchard, Lilian E. 
Butcher, Margaret E. 

Campbell, Edith, B.A. 
Cartwright, C. F. 
Courtice, Sybil R. 
Code, Phoebe. 
Collins, Ethel. 
Chappell, Constance, B.A. 
Clarke, Isabella. 

Donogh, Lizzie J. 
Drake, Katharine. 
Dever, Mrs. Mary S. 

Elderkin, Elizabeth J., B.A. 
Estabrook, Alice L. 
Ellwood, Ila M. 

Folkins, Sadie M., B.A. 
Ferguson, Sarah E. 

Govenlock. Isabel, B.A. 
Graham, Eleanor D., B.A. 
Gray, Fannie S. 

Howson, Ethalind B. 
Hudson, Frances E. 
Hall, Ellen E. 
Harrison, Adelaide. 
Hurd, Helen R. 
Hickman, Ethel M 
Hockin, Mrs. Arthur. 
Holt, Jane Ethel. 

Inglis, May W. 

Jost, Mary. 
Jack, Florence F. 



Keagey, Margaret D., 
B.H.Sc. 

Lawson, Lottie E. 
Lawson, Mary E., B.A. 
Lindsay, Olivia C, B.A. 
Lediard, Ella. 

Markland. O. Neata, B.A. 
McLean, Ella, B.A. 
Marshall, Eliza. 
McLeod, Annie O. 
McPherson Ethel. 
McKim, Nina. 
Myles, Ada S. 
Masters, Irene F. 

Payne, Ada M. 
Powell, M. W. 
Parker, Mary M. 

Rea, Olive, M.D. 
Robinson, Florence A. 
Robinson, Jennie. 
Ryan, Esther L., B.A. 
Robinson, E. Rubie. 

Scholefield, Sarah. 
Steele, Uberta F. 
Speers, Edna M. 
Sanford, Alice A., M.L.A. 
Smith, Mary Totten. 
Sparling, Edith P. 
Srigley, Zelma L. 
Shuttleworth, V. A. 
Swann, Annabel. 
Scott, Mary C, B.A. 
Swann, Mary J. 
Scouten, Annie. 
Stone, Florence E. 
Speers, Ada B., M.D. 
Strothard, Alice O. 
Staples, Marie M. 
Sherritt, Lydia B. 
Shepley, Beulah M. 
Sweetman, Ethel Maude. 



337 



Missionaries Appointed Since 1906 



Turner, Olive M. 
Thompson, Mabel E. 
Thompson, Mary I. 
Tuttle, Martha J., B.A. 
Tait, Sadie O. 

Ure, Jennie. 



Virgo, Ethel M. 

Wellwood, Caroline. 
Wheeler, Myrtle M. 

Young, Dell. 
Yarwood, Mary. 



Fifteen of these have been married. 
Eleven not now on the field — withdrawn. 



* Miss Bouchard has served since 1902, but her name 
did not appear in the earlier volume list. 



338